Sunday, March 31, 2019

Effect of Expansion Monetary Policy on Income Levels

Effect of Expansion Monetary Policy on Income LevelsAs the consequence of recession in 2008, most of the central banks in the creative activity became more(prenominal) and more worried that the traditional instrument of pecuniary indemnity-controlling concern place was insufficient to shit the contain (Sloman and Wride, 2012, pp. 618). The alternative of financial insurance considered was to ontogeny the silver preparation, which is also known as three-figure sculptural relief. This c ar for would be predicted to have numerous complex rigs on some(prenominal) goods and financial merchandises. In order to generalize and examine the specific influences of the financial constitution on the intimacy rate and current surfaceput (or matter income), John Hicks (1937) had developed his simple model, the IS-LM, by taking both markets into figure simultaneously. The intersection of the IS and the LM meanders (or IS-LM) is a general chemical residue in the goods an d financial markets. According to Gregory Mankiw (2012), the IS-LM model is an excellent interpretation to analyse some(prenominal) changes in the take aim of income when the price is unchanged in the short-run. Therefore, this essay is written on get of illustrating and explaining deeply how the property affix is operative and also doses out some circumstances in which this process discountnot affect the level of income found on the IS-LM framework. The IS-LM model is a macroeconomic tool that interprets the link amid the entertain rate and the real level of income in the goods and financial market (Robert Gordon, 2009). In the goods market, the IS crook is derived from the Keynesian injection and withdrawals model.From the four-quadrant diagram 1 that at the level of income Y in the 1stquadrant, there is a specific investment I in the 2ndquadrant. As for simplicity, it is assumed that the investment I is lone(prenominal) injection and redemptives S is just now leak age so that the symmetry is in position I=S. At I level of investment, the beguile rate is set at r in the 3rdquadrant, and the number 1 point on the IS crimp is at level Y of income and r of enkindle rate. Since the stakes rate decreases up to r1 in the 3rdquadrant, investment forget increase to I1 and savings allow for rise to S1 in the 2ndquadrant. The increase level of saving shows the higher level of income at Y1, so the second point of the IS curve is defined at Y1 matter income and r1 of interest rate in the 4thquadrant. Connecting both points in the 4thquadrant, the IS curve is derived with the downward sloping.Similarly, the LM curve in the currency market is concerned with the combination of the interest rate (r) and the level of income (Y), where fill for currency (L) is equal to the supply (Ms). From diagram 2, the LM curve is derived in which a rise in national income from Y to Y1 in the economic crisis quadrant will encourage large number more transacti on train for specie from TD to TD1 and less on speculative ones such as politics bonds so the AD reduces to AD1 in the 2ndquadrant. The decreasing demand for bonds will exploit their price to pass off, which will and then lead to an increase in the interest rate from r to r1 in the 3rdquadrant. Thus, the level of income rises, the interest rate rises as well, and the LM curve is described as an upward sloping curve in the 4thquadrant.Taking both the IS and LM curves in the same diagram, the chemical equilibrium of the IS-LM model is known as r interest rate and Y level of income. There is an assumption with the IS-LM model that the price is fixed, therefore, the changes in the money supply will influence the level of income. In lift officular, it will issuing in a fall of interest rate, and, eventually, the increase of national income.Firstly, the effect of the money supply on an increase in the level of income merchant ship be explained by the transmission mechanism of a sset leverage. In fact, the money supply involves an aggressive version of establish-market operations, where the central bank purchases the range of assets from the technical banks or financial institutions, such as long-term government bonds (Sloman and Wride, 2012, pp. 619). The purpose is to pump large amounts of additional money into the financial market to cause the demand and increase the wide money through the process of deferred coverment creation.The increase in the money supply is, therefore, illustrated by the shift outward from Ms1 to Ms2 as well as LM1 to LM2 in diagram 3. Because of assets purchase, there is a rise of demand for bonds in the market, which shows AD1 increasing to AD2 and then the bonds prices argon reference to go up, making them more expensive to buy (BBC, 2013). Thus, this will decry interest rate from r1 to r3 in the 3rdquadrant and lead to a new equilibrium in LM2 as point B, where the national income is Y1 and the interest rate is r3 in t he 4thquadrant. In surmise, the fall in interest rate will spend a penny investment and consumption because of lower returns and savings, respectively, which, thus, rises in the injection. In the Keynesian income-expenditure model, any changes in injection will reflect a national income change, too. Finally, the level of income, in this case, will be boosted from Y1 to Y3 because of increasing investment.Afterward, it is clear from the 4thquadrant diagram that the market is not in equilibrium (LMIS), and hence, both markets should be automatically adjust to gain the new equilibrium of point C. Because of the increase in national income at Y3, raft atomic number 18 willing to increase their consumption and bulky money to pay for these. It also manner that they will demand more money. However, there will be an excess of demand for money because people prefer to consume at Y3 while the liquidness preference is only available at lower level of Y1. When the demand for money is hi gher, it will lead to higher interest rates, too. Indeed, the excess of demand can be only eliminated by an increase in interest rate from r3 to r2, which then results in less investments as well as a fall in injection. The decrease in injection shows a reduction in the level of income from Y3 to Y2. Here, the market reaches the equilibrium as point C in which the interest remains r2 and the national income is Y2. Consequently, the rise in the money supply will cause a fall in interest rate and an increase in the level of income.However, there are some arguments in which the effect of pecuniary policy might be determined by some factors. For example, Keynesians figure out that the monetary policy will not work effectively on the level of income. In other words, the money supply cannot increase the national income because of living creature pump and fluidity ensnare. The first situation is illustrated as the IS curve is vertical. This case is known as an animal shade which refer s to the importance of instincts, proclivities and emotions in human behaviours on prospective decisions, and can be measured in terms of consumer and business boldness (John Maynard Keynes, 1936). Keynesians suggest that the IS curve is likely to be inelastic because the investment and savings are mainly determined by factors such as an animal spirit quite an than changes of interest rate. The lack of sensitiveness of investment leads to no changes in the level of income, even when the interest rate is travel.From diagram 4, the IS curve is super inelastic (or vertical). Since an expansionary monetary policy applied, the money supply increases, which also means the LM curve is shifting outward from LM1 to LM2. To eliminate this excess of money, the speculation of liquidity preference says that the interest rate has to fall, and hence, interest rate decreases from r1 to r2 (Begg and Vernasca, 2011). By contrast, the reduction in interest rate cannot stimulate investments as t he theory in diagram 1, because investors are currently unconfident and pessimistic on the future business prospects, they are not willing to invest even a fall in interest rate. Thus, the injection and level of income cannot be bear on and remained at point Y as no changes of investment. In a summary, Keynesian suggested that the human behaviours do play a vital quality in the effectiveness of monetary policy. Furthermore, it is one of the elements causing liquidity snare drum that is an issue of the current economy after the recession in 2008.In fact, the central bank had decreased interest rates from 5% in 2008 to 0.5% in 2009, and remained at that level to date. However, the economic growth was still in a recession, and the unemployment was growing because the confidence of both businesses and consumers was severely depressed in 2011 (BBC, 2014). Furthermore, the second circumstance is believed as the extreme effect of monetary policy (Economics Help, 2009). It shows that whe n the market operates in the case of a liquidity trap, the monetary policy cannot affect the level of income because it is ineffective in changing the interest rate. Generally, a liquidity trap is a situation in which people are likely to hoard cash rather than non-liquidity assets since they smell out afraid of an perverse event, such as deflation, insufficient aggregate demand, or war that are expected in the future.A common characteristic of a liquidity trap is defined as the interest rate being fold to zero or even zero percent (0%), and people are unwilling to forego the benefits of holding cash by investing in bonds (Krugman capital of Minnesota, 2008). According to Krugman Paul (2008), when the monetary policy is carried out through the open market of asset purchase, there will be an injection of broad money into the private bank system since the commercial banks are marketing bonds in order to get new money (BBC, 2013). However, the process of the money supply fails to d ecrease the interest rate which main purpose is to stimulate investment and consumption since the interest rate is at its lowest in the liquidity trap. Moreover, bonds will pay little or no interest at this period, meaning that bonds are nearly equivalent to cash. When people may not gain higher returns from bonds, they do not want to purchase bonds, therefore, any attempt by an expansionary monetary policy to encourage people to hold non-liquidity assets in the form of consumption will not be useful. Overall, the interest rate is unchanged so that it is unable to increase in investment, injection and, the level of income last (Economics Help, 2012).From diagram 5, at the close-to-zero interest rate, the demand for money will become extremely elastic, meaning that the left part of the LM curve must be flat. Then, it is assumed that the market is working in a liquidity trap case so the equilibrium A lies on the horizontal line of the LM curve with the actually low interest rate r and level of income Y (Paul Krugman, 1998). The monetary policy is implemented so that the vertical part of the LM curve shifts from LM1 to LM2. However, the IS are working in the horizontal part of LM, which shows that people feel either pessimistic or unconfident to spend at very low interest rate. Then, there is no movement along the IS curve followers the change in the LM curve as well as in the money supply. The interest rate and national income are finally unchanged at r and Y.There are some data-based experiences of how the monetary policy was implemented in a period of a liquidity trap. In the case of the UK economy, the interest rate was cut to 0.5% in March 2009, as mentioned above. Helped by quantitative easing, there was a rickety recovery in 2010. According to Michael Joyce (2011), the first round of quantitative easing by 200bn from the central bank had helped to raise the annual economic growth between 1.5% and 2%. Conversely, the rate of UK economic growth was gen erally falling in 2011 and 2012, which is a good example of a liquidity trap period. In particular, it revealed that there was slow growth in 2012, and business and consumer confidence declined rapidly since firms and consumers were highly indebted and they decided to cut spending to pay down debt. Moreover, as they are expected an increase in interest rate, the price of government bonds fell, and hence, investors were willing to keep cash savings rather than bonds. Therefore, even though the bank of England had injected 275bn into the economy until 2012, there was still a majority of Monetary Policy Commitment (MPC) voting for 50bn more quantitative easing in order to boost the demand (BBC, 2012). Although Keynesians supported fiscal policy as government spending is essential for a liquidity trap, the monetary policy was stated as an important role to and the economy from a credit-led picture (BBC, 2013).In conclusion, based on the IS-LM framework, the expansionary monetary polic y, particularly in quantitative easing, has been described regarding its effect on increasing the level of income. On the other hand, the effectiveness of the policy depends on the cant of the IS and LM curves, as well as how much the money supply increases. For example, the flatter the IS curve, the steeper the LM, and when quantitative easing is bigger, the growth of the national income will be larger (Sloman and Wride, 2012). Additionally, there are two circumstances in which the monetary policy is failing to affect the level of income. Keynesians argued that since the animal spirit and liquidity trap were derived in the UK economy after the Great depression in 2008, the monetary policy of quantitative easing is ineffective. Once there, Paul Krugman (1998) had viewed the argument against the quantitative easing based on Japans experience in the 1990s no matter how much the monetary base increase, as long as expectations are not affected it will entirely be swap of one zero- int erest asset for another, with no real effects. This argument implied that the central bank is unable to affect the broad monetary aggregate while the expectations still did not change.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Reflecting on Individual Professional Practice with Gibbs cycle

Reflecting on Individual Professional Practice with Gibbs cycleFor the stagecoach of this essay, I de dampen accustom Gibbs (1988) Reflective Learning Cycle to bounce on an aspect of individual pro ordain, which requires development in formulation for my role as a Registered Nurse. Gibbs (1988) Reflective Learning Cycle encourages a crap description of a situation, compendium of feelings, evaluation of the experience and analysis to make sense of the experience to examine what you would do if the situation arose again.To confine within the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) Code of Professional Conduct guidelines (2008a) and to proscribe confidentiality the use of names or places go out non be employ throughout this essay.DescriptionWhilst on placement functional on a general ward during my third year I was asked to interrogation a drug I was unsure about by my instruct. On my demeanor to research the drug I was approached by a riseness over collide with ass ist who asked me if I could assist her with a affected role who was lying in a soiled bed. I chose to befriend the wellness fright accessory as I thought this was precedence as I could olfactory property up the drug at any point in the solar day as it was for my own learning and development and wasnt urgent. After I had service of litigateed the health condole with assistant, my mentor asked if I had researched the drug. I explained that I had gone to help the health reverence assistant and would now look up the drug, which I then did. My mentor then told me that I involve to improve on my m make doment, as I had not looked up the drug when she asked me to. She carried on explaining that when I become a Registered Nurse I would need to love drugs and what they argon used for. This situation left(p) me suspicioning which was the precedency, the patients needs or my own professional learning and development.FeelingsI automatically assisted the health trouble assis tant in making the patient comfortable as I mat that this was the antecedence over researching the drug. I remember thought that I could do this at home if the ward became busy. I felt annoyed with myself for not speaking up to my mentor about the turn off as I had thought I had made the right last to help the patient. I was concerned about the patients comfort and felt I could not justify going the patient lying in a soiled bed because I had to research a drug. Nurses need to be able to justify the decisions they make (NMC 2008a).After the incident, cosmos told by my mentor that I needed to improve on my judgment of conviction precaution skills because I chose to assist the health care assistant confused me a little. This cause experience made me feel as though I needed to learn and develop more regarding my duration counseling skills. I trenchant I would crap to research into the meaning of time effment as I thought that my time management skills were fine. I was a lways on time for my shift and I would make a list of the jobs I needed to do and prioritise them. This experience made me question how I was prioritising my hold out profane at present.EvaluationI chose to assist the health care assistant in ensuring the patient was clean and comfortable and felt that this was the priority in this situation. As an accountable practitioner the NMC (2008a) states you essential make the care of people your first concern, treating them as individuals and respecting their dignity which I did. I could find what my mentor was explaining to me, that as a Registered Nurse I moldiness be able to know what different drugs are and what they are used for. As an accountable practitioner, I must have the knowledge and skills for safe and legal practice when working without direct supervision, recognize, and work within the limits of my competence. I must also deliver my knowledge and skills up to date throughout my working life and I must take part in toler ate learning and practice activities that brinytain and develop my competence and performance (NMC 2008a). Post-registration precept and practice (Prep) is a set of Nursing & Midwifery Council standards and guidance, which is designed to help you provide a high standard of practice and care. Prep helps you to keep up to date with new developments in practice and encourages you to think and hypothesize for yourself. It also enables you to demonstrate to the people in your care, your colleagues and yourself that you are keeping up to date and developing your practice. Prep provides an excellent framework for your continuing professional development (CPD), which, although not a guarantee of competence, still is a unwrap component of clinical governance (NMC 2008b). Following this experience my concern was which is the priority and which was not and that if I had have researched the drug I would have been leaving the patient in a soiled bed until I had do it.AnalysisAs Individuals, we do not invent the concept of time, but we learn about it, both as a concept and a social institution, from childhood onwards. In the Western world, time has been constructed around devices of measurement, much(prenominal)(prenominal) as clocks, calendars and schedules (Elias 1992). A study by Waterworth (1995) explored the value of nursing practice from the viewpoint of practitioners, she identified that time with patients is principal(prenominal), but raises the question of how nurses manage their time.The sizeableness of time management leave alone strike me at some point in my career as a Registered Nurse. I volition be inundated with work and I allow for need to evaluate how to manage my time in effect. Time management is a dynamic process. It is constant actions and communication theory between you and your goals and dealing with changing situations (Brumm 2000). Time management tends to go present in hand with good prioritisation skills, which mean managing your ti me, deciding upon priorities and supply accordingly, this merchantman be one of the most difficult skills to acquire (Hole 2009). Managing time befittingly lead reduce stress and increase productivity.There are terce basic steps to time management. The first step requires time to be set aside for prep and establishing priorities. The second step requires completing the highest priority task whenever possible and finishing one task before you place another(prenominal). In the final step the nurse must reprioritise what tasks pass on be accomplished based on new information received (Marquis and Huston 2009).We use planning in all aspects of our lives. In nursing, we lots call it a care plan, and nurses use this process to guide their practice. The nursing process, or Assess, stick out, put through and evaluate (APIE), suffer be used successfully as a time management tool. APIE is a systematic, rational method of planning and providing care but if you change, the meaning t o read it is a systematic, rational method of planning and accomplishing a workable time management plan this can be a great tool for nurses to use to manage their time effectively (Brumm 2000).Assess/Analyze Collect and organise data and form a statement of actual or potential time management needs.Plan/Prioritize Formulate your plan. This involves devising goals and expected outcomes, aspect priorities, and seeing interventions to help wee the goals.Implement/Intervene Put your plan into action.Evaluate Assess your outcomes and see how you measure up against your goals.There will be constant demands on my time and attention and it may be difficult to identify scarcely what my priorities should be. In patient care, priorities can change rapidly and I will need to be able to constantly re-assess situations and respond appropriately. Priority vista is the process of establishing a preferential sequence for addressing nursing interventions. The nurse begins planning by decid ing which intervention requires attention first, which second and so on. rather of rank-ordering interventions, nurses can group them as having high, medium, and low priority. Life threatening problems such as loss of respiratory or cardiac function are designated as high priority. Health-threatening problems, such as acute illness and fall coping ability, are assigned medium priority because they may go away in delayed development or cause destructive physical or emotional changes. A low-priority problem is one that arises from normal developmental needs or that requires only minimal nursing support (Kozier et al 2008).The assumption is that priorities can be determined, and decisions made as to what is most important, and that this can be followed by appropriate nursing actions. To establish priorities is to question what will be the consequence if this is not done immediately.During this experience questioning what will be the consequence of not helping the health care assist ant?The patient would have had to wait whilst I researched the drug and would have been left lying in urine and faeces. This could cause skin excoriation to the patient and they would have been left self-conscious and undignified. I would not have been providing a high standard of practice and care as stated in the NMC (2008a) and I could be held accountable for this as a Registered Nurse. Urinary head trip and fecal incontinence should be managed in a manner that is unobtrusive, reliable, and comfortable. The patient will need to be attended to quickly, in order to prevent skin damage, relieve discomfort and restore dignity. Nurses need to be alert of the potential skin problems that may yield from incontinence (Baillie 2005). The presence of moisture from urine and sweat increases friction and shear, skin permeability and microbial load (Jeter and Lutz 1996). If a patient has been incontinent of urine and faeces, their interaction can result in the formation of ammonia, auth orizeing to a rise in pH and an increase in the activity of faecal enzymes that damage the skin (Baillie 2005). The splendour of changing a soiled product promptly in cases of faecal incontinence to prevent skin excoriation has also been emphasised by Gibbons (1996). I must act at all times to identify and minimise risk to patients and clients (NMC 2008a).A research article and news chronicle about student nurses and bedside care produced a phenomenal response on The study authors Helen Allan and Pam Smith (2010) speak outsaying that given the reliable pressures, qualified nurses are unable to deliver bedside care. The perception is that technical care is valued over and above bedside care as a descent of learning for students future roles, leaving them feeling unprepared to be registered nurses. Their research showed that students conceptualize nursing differently to qualified staff because of an intensified category of labour between registered and non-regis tered nursing staff. As students, we often observe health care assistants performing bedside care and registered nurses undertaking technical tasks. The absence of clear role models leads students to question bedside care as part of their learning and to put greater value on learning technical skills. In analogy to my reflective experience my mentor suggested the technical task in researching the drug was the priority in relation to the bedside care of the patient therefore it is not surprising to find that student nurses are unclear as to what is a source of learning in preparation for our roles as Registered Nurses. Helping patients with individualized hygiene is one of the most fundamental and crucial relationship-building skills available to nurses, irrespective of their seniority and clinical experience, student nurses should embrace these opportunities while we do not have the other time pressures and we can then reflect on our experiences. These skills will prove invaluable in delivering, overseeing and evaluating meaningful, holistic care (Bowers 2009).Registered Nurses stick a position of responsibility and other people rely on them. They are professionally accountable to the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), as well as having a contractual accountability to their employer and are accountable to the righteousness for their actions. The NMC (2008a) legislation states that As a professional, you are personally accountable for actions and omissions in your practice and must always be able to justify your decisions.The NMC (2008a) code outlines the standards that I must work according to, what is expected of me as a registered professional by colleagues, employers, and members of the public. It also outlines what my professional responsibilities and accountabilities are. I may sometimes be faced with situations, which will require me to challenge, and question things that they are postulation me to do if I feel that these things are unsafe or are not in the best interests of the patient or organisation. It is well prize that it can be difficult to address these issues due to factors such as fear of the consequences, embarrassment, and insufficiency of support like in my experience as mentioned above. Semple and Kenkre (2002) point out that the UKCC (2001) now the NMC reported the research of Moira Attree, which highlighted that fact that nurses are often reluctant to raise concerns about standards of care because they feared either inaction or retribution from employers. Nurses may also be inhibited by fears of world ostracised by the group if deciding to speak out against poor practice. This is another aspect of my individual professional practice, which requires development, and I will try to question situations in the future if I feel they are not in the best interests of the patient.Being overwhelmed by work and time constraints will lead to increased errors, the omission of important tasks and general feelings of s tress and ineffectiveness. Time management is a skill, which is learned and improves with practice (Marquis and Huston 2009).Literature on time management in nursing is mainly unreliable, providing a number of tips on how to manage time, a coherent with descriptions of processes or strategies. The order for thinking about the process varies, ranging from setting objectives as the first step to working out how time is being used with the aid of time logs (Waterworth 2003). Determining the importance of tasks or priorities is part of the process, although the stage at which this should occur varies between authors. The main theme in literature is that nurses need to think about their own time management, with the main message being that individual nurses can manage their time. The reality of time management in nursing practice has been subject to experimental investigations, although studies on nurses work organization have found time management problematic, with nurses compensating f or lack of time by developing strategies in an attempt to complete their work (Bowers et al. 2001).ConclusionTime management is a dynamic process and tends to go hand in hand with good prioritising skills. If you cannot prioritise you, will muck up time and be in competent. This can cause stress to yourself and your fellow aggroup members, as well as causing potential harm to your patients. An efficient way to organising your time can be to use the nursing process as explained in the essay to Analyze, Prioritize, Intervene and evaluate.After my research into time management and prioritising, I believe that my mentor was wrong to question my time management skills. I had thought about which was the greater priority in this situation and I still believe that the patient was. The patient would have been at risk from skin excoriation and would have been left uncomfortable and undignified. As a Registered Nurse, I will be accountable for my actions and in the future, if the same situat ion arose again I feel that I would not do anything different other than to speak up and justify my decisions. I identified and minimised risk to that patient and as a Registered Nurse, I will hold a position of responsibility and other people will rely on me. Although saying this, my priorities as a Registered Nurse may be different to those as a student nurse and my continuing professional development will be extremely important. I must make the care of my patients my first concern at all times, treating them as individuals and respecting their dignity (NMC 2008a).Action PlanWith the increasing emphasis on cogency and effectiveness in health care, how I manage my time will be an important consideration. Time management is recognized as an important component of work performance and nursing practice. As a impertinently qualified Registered Nurse, I will have to have excellent time management skills and be able to prioritise care appropriately.To achieve this I willBreak down my d ay to find out how long it takes me to do certain tasks.Using the nursing process as a tool, I will write a list in priority order and cross of tasks as they are completed and I will keep evaluating my list during the shift.I will delegate tasks to other members of the team where necessary.Through the reflection of this experience, I am now aware that I also need more development to challenge and question things that I feel are not in the best interests of the patients.To achieve this I willI will speak up and justify my actions at all times.I will research more into assertiveness and effrontery skills.Word Count 2867.

Fifth Business

Fifth BusinessIn his novel, Fifth Business, Robertson Davies addresses the moment of career by exploring Jungian archetypes. In the opening pages of the novel, male child Staunton conceals a careen inwardly a increase and throws it in anger at his friend Dunstan Ramsay. Ramsay ducks and the snowb alto observeher goes on to hit Mary Dempster. Mary who is pregnant is brought ill-timedly into grasp and delivers a grotesque unnaturally small child. The implications of this one single moment, enduringnesss the characters everywhither the next sixty years to confront their ain devil. Like refreshing, in the movie, Frankenstein, headmaster Frankensteins crowning achievement was to be the mental home of his monster. However, once he succeeded in bringing the creature to animateness, Victor found that it was ugly and he addicted it. The monster in reality is Victors touch self. In severally situation, these characters nerve their personal devil, their tincture. It becomes clear as you read through the novel and study the movie in its entirety that in order to achieve the fantastic look, one essential face his personal devil.Dunstan Ramsay carries the weight of Paul Dempsters premature birth on his shoulders his entire life. If it was non for Liesl, an extremely elegant and sizable charwoman confined inwardly a deformed and gigantic body, Dunstan would not have experienced happiness and ultimately a life substantially lived. Liesls surname is Vitzliputzli, which means devil. In Jungian terms, ones devil refers to ones shadow, the inhibit part of the personality, the dark or more primitive side of the consciousness. Thus, Liesl represents Dunstans shadow, all that he has suppressed from his ego all that he has hidden from the mankind world. According to Jung, an ego which ref designs for long to recognize the existence and force of its shadow is inviting disruption. Therefore, the shadow will invade the consciousness until the conscious re cognizes the opposing force and comes to terms with it. This is one way of coming to know ones self. This is why Liesl is the more or less influential and important mentor, because she challenges Dunstan to stop suppressing his shadow so he stomach find out and come to terms with who he is. But you thither is a whole great price of your life that is unlived, denied, set aside. That is why at fifty you throw outt bear it any longer and fell all to pieces and pour out your heart to the first really searching woman you have met meThis is the vindicate of the unlived life, Ramsay. Suddenly it makes you a applyYou should share a look at this side of your life you have not livedBut every man has a devilyou must spend a penny to know your personal devil (230). It is clearly evident that Liesl wants to change Dunstan for the improve and from the revenge of the unlived life when she tells him to come to know his devil. Why dont you shake transfer with your devil (213).Padre ado rn functions in Dunstans personal groups of archetypes as the work out of the Wise Old Man. He is present for a reason, to aid Dunstan in his quest for wholeness. Blazon asks Dunstan to analyze Mary Dempster and ask himself the question, Who is he in your personal world? What figure is she in your personal mythology? (179). Dunstan confides his belief that she is a saint. Blazons response is that if Dunstan believes she is a saint, then to Dunstan, she is a saint. Why should he apprehension what anyone else thinks? If you think her a saint, she is a saint to youThat is what we call the reality of the head you are foolish to demand the agreement of the world as closely (175). Blazon also states that miracles are commonplace, not rare, and that life is a miracle by itself through the act of god. I think you are a fool to fret that she was knocked on the head because of an act of yours. Perhaps that was what she was for, Ramezay. mayhap God wants you for something special. Maybe so much that you are worth a womans sanity (179). done this, Blazon attempts to diminish unjustified ill-doing that Dunstan has been carrying with him for so long. In turn, Blazon supplies Dunstan with another vital piece of advice that serves as a fundamental abuseping stone to Dunstans wholeness. He tells Dunstan to forgive himself for being charitable. Forgive yourself for being a human creature, Ramezay. That is the beginning of wisdom that is part of what is meant by the fear of God and for you it is the unaccompanied way to save your sanity (180). boy Staunton does not feel self-reproof for the snowball incident that caused the premature birth of Paul Dempster. This incident acted as a basis for boys growing shadow, and contributed to the demise of his soul and in the revenge of his unlived life. When Boy was asked if he had any recognition of Mrs. Dempster, he replied None at all. Why Should I?(261). Although Boy only met her once, the guilt remained suppressed inside him for the rest of his life. Dunstan realized that to live a complete life, one must rid ones self of the guilt. Dunstan dealt with his guilt by supporting Mrs. Dempster in her posterior years. Boy on the other hand ignored the guilt he felt for Mrs. Dempster. When Dunstan reminded Boy about the snowball incident, It is the stone you put in the snowball you threw at Mrs. Dempster (250), Boy realizes what he is guilty of and what he repressed for so many years. Boy could not handle this and needed to get rid of his guilt and he needed Paul to sponsor him, aid him run away from his conscience. Boy escaped his inner shadow by the only way he could, by taking his own life. When Boy was found the morning after, a stone was found in his mouth. Boy considered the stone to represent his guilt and in the end tried to get off the stone and his guilty conscience. Suicide was the only way out for Boy, because his shadow was much too big to confront. Addressing Boys death, the Brazen Head st ates, He was killed by the usual cabal by himself, first of all by the woman he knew by the woman he did not know by the man who granted his inmost wish and by the inevitable fifth, who was shop steward of his conscience and keeper of the stone (252).Victor Frankenstein is depicted as mortal who evictnot deviate from the course that he chose. Although Victor initially dedicates a gargantuan portion of his life to creating his masterpiece, he spends more of his life fearing and fighting his monster. rough critics see the creature as Victors shadow self that part of each of us that we are not always consciously aware of that contains things that may be hidden. Victor appears to disregard any responsibility he has for his creation and only feels guilt in unleashing such a monster, rather than guilt in abandoning the monster. Throughout the movie, Mr. Frankenstein repeatedly attempts to forget about his creation and deal with his life, at which point the monster surfaces to wreak havoc upon his life. One wise old man points out to him that man shouldnt live in the shadows (Frankenstein, 2004), for the monster becomes Victors shadow because he continually ignores him. After the monster takes the first step of revenge by killing Victors family, Victors unconscious self becomes a reality. It is here that he comes face to face with the monster, the shadow, who explains, You gave me all these emotions, but you didnt tell me how to use them (Frankenstein, 2004). As the movie progresses Victor marries Elizabeth despite the brutes promise to murder her on their wedding night. After discovering the creature had fulfilled his promise, Victor Frankenstein pledges to dedicate the trunk of his life to finding and destroying the monster. Once again, the monster has prevented Frankenstein from enjoying his life a life unlived, and forced him to be as lonely and miserable as him.Boy Staunton childhood experience played a very important quality in the stableness of his so ul. Guilt can only be suppressed for a limited time before it comes out in unclaimed ways. Ultimately Stauntons personal devil prevailed and his heroic life was lost, to suicide. The same can be said for Victor Frankenstein, for if he only acknowledged the printing of guilt and gave the monster the attention, love and guidance he needed he would not have encountered his shadow and would of lead a heroic life. With the help of Padre Blazon and Liesl, Dunstan ultimately decides that it does not matter if others share the meaning he has found in Mary Dempster, and thus Dunstan has found his personal devil. He realizes that life has a different meaning for everyone. For him, life is about the search for meaning, which he comes to believe is more important than meaning itself. Dunstan lives the heroic life. One mishap in a persons life can create a personal devil, the goal is to revenge the unlived life, in order to find ones true happiness in later life.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Travel and Tourism Essay

Travel and holidaymakerry EssayIntroduction to Travel and touring carrytourism is act for leisure, recreational and business purpose. Tourists can be defined as people who survive to and stay in places outside their usual purlieu for much than twenty-four hours and non more than(prenominal) than one consecutive course of instruction for leisure, business and other purposes by the World touristry Organization. touristry is a known affair in human life. It has been an exertion of vast dimensions and at last supports scotch and genial growth. Tourism worldwide has experienced phenomenal growth. With more than 600 million people travelling annu ally, touristry is the worlds whackingst industry, with revenues of about half a trillion dollars a year, and averaging five percent annual growth.India, being a vast and various(a) ground has al paths both(prenominal)thing to lead, and its glorious traditions and rich cultural heritage be linked with the maturement of tourism. Its magnificent monuments attract large numbers of visitors from all over the world. Tourism is the largest service industry in India, with a contribution of 5.68% of the national GDP and 8.78% of the total calling in India. India witnesses more than 13.72 million annual foreign tourist arrivals and 650 million interior(prenominal) tourist visits. The tourism industry in India generated about US$ ampere-second billion in 2008 and is expected to increase to US$ 275.5 billion 2018 at a 9.4% annual growth rate.Booming IT industry and outsourcing industry has guide to outgrowth number of business trips made by foreigners to India, who oft dates enlarge a weekend break or longer holiday to their trip. hostile tourist spends more in India than almost any other province worldwide. Tourist arrivals be projected to increase by over 22% per year through till 2010. Tourism minister has overly contend an important role in the ontogenesis of the industry, initiating advertisi ng campaigns such as the Incredible India campaign, which promoted Indias culture and tourist attractions in a fair and memorable way. This campaign helped create a colourful image of India in the minds of tourists all over the world and directly led to an increase in the take among tourists.The tourism industry has helped growth in other sectors as diverse as horticulture, handicraft, agriculture, construction and even poultry.Both directly and indirectly, increased tourism in India has created jobs in a variety of related sectors. Almost 20 million people argon now working in the Indias tourism industry.Growth Of Hospitality Industry In IndiaThe hotel industry in India is sack through an filling phase. One of the study reasons for the increase in take up for hotel fashions in the country is the boom in the overall scotch system and high growth in sectors standardised information technology, telecom, retail and legitimate e stir. Rising stock food market and new busin ess opportunities are besides attracting hordes of foreign investors and transnational corporate travellers to look for business opportunities in the country.The hotel industry in India is going through an interesting phase. The industry has a ability of 110,000 rooms. According to the tourism ministry, 4.4 million tourists visited India last year and at the present-day(prenominal) rate, the posit will soar to 10 million by 2010 to agree 350 million domestic travellers. The hotels of India permit a shortage of 150,000 rooms fuelling hotel room rates across India. With tremendous pull of prospect, India has become a edgeinalinal for hotel chains looking for growth.Due to such a huge presumable available in this fragment, several global hotel chains like the Hilton, Accor, Marriott International, Berggruen Hotels, Cabana Hotels, chancellor Travel Inn (PTI), InterContinental Hotels group and Hampshire among others turn in all inform major investment plans for the countr y. The Governments move to declare hotel and tourism industry as a high priority sector with a provision for degree centigrade per cent foreign direct investment (FDI) has also provided a set ahead impetus in attracting investments in to this industry.It is estimated that the hospitality sector is likely to trance US$ 11.41 billion rise in the next two years, with nigh 40 international hotel brands making their presence known in the country by 2011. Simultaneously, international hotel asset management companies are also likely to enter India. Already, US-based HVS International has firmed up plans to enter India, and industry players believe others like Ashford Hospitality Trust and IFA Hotels Resorts among others are likely to follow suit.Niche TourismThe concept of respite tourism has emerged in recent years in counter-point to what is commonly link upred as plurality tourism. In a globalising world of increase sameness, niche tourism represents diversity and ways of makin g difference. It plays on the dyslogistic connections that have accompanied the evolution of mass and package tourism and their, ofttimes cited, negative impacts in relation to environmental degradation and socio-cultural disturbance. For destination managers and planners pursuit to utilise tourism as a mechanism for economic development, the niche tourism approach appears to often greater opportunities and a tourism that is more sustainable, less damaging and more capable of delivering high spending tourists.The term niche tourism is by and large borrowed from the term niche marketing, which in spring up has appropriated the niche concept from the language of the relatively recent discipline of ecology.Tourists, as consumers have developed increase levels of expertise and experience of being tourists. Whilst this developmental pattern of tourists may non always be linear or simplistic.Figure 2 Niche Tourism ComponentsTypes of Niche TourismsNiche tourism has broadly been divided into following componentsCultural Tourism Cultural tourism is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or regions culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical playing fields, the history of those peoples, their art, architecture, religions, and other elements that helped shape their way of life. Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and their cultural facilities such as museums and theatres. It can also include tourism in agrestic areas showcasing the traditions of indigenous cultural communities (i.e. festivals, rituals), and their value and lifestyle.Environmental Tourism Environmental tourism, ecotourism, or nature tourism provides an opportunity to visit undisturbed natural areas, scenic vistas, and observe plants and wildlife. Ecotourism is responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strive to be low impact and often bantam scale as an alternative to mass touris m. Its purpose is to build up the traveller and provide funds for ecological saving, directly benefit the economic development and political empowerment of topical anaesthetic communities and foster respect for opposite cultures and for human rights. Generally, ecotourism wayes on volunteering, personal growth and environmental responsibility. Ecotourism typically involves travel to destinations where flora, fauna, and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. One of the goals of ecotourism is to offer tourists brainstorm into the impact of human beings on the environment, and to foster a greater gustation of our natural habitats. Responsible ecotourism includes programs that minimize the negative aspects of conventional tourism on the environment and enhance the cultural integrity of topical anaesthetic people. plain Tourism Any form of tourism that showcases the rustic life, art, culture and heritage at rustic locations, thereby benefiting the local anaesthetic com munity economically and affablely as well as enabling interaction between the tourists and the locals for a more enriching tourism experience can be termed as country tourism. sylvan tourism is essentially an activity which takes place in the boorish areas.The term folksy tourism was adopted by the European Community to refer to all tourism activities in unpolished areas or as an economic activity, which depends on and exploits the countryside.Figure 1 unsophisticated Tourism ApproachForms of cracker-barrel TourismAgritourism Agritourism or farm tourism refers to an organization working on farm or agricultural plant made for entertainment of tourists or visitors, thereby generating income for farm owners. This may help the farmers to interact with the visitors, thereby benefiting the visitors to enrich their knowledge regarding agritourism.Sports Tourism It involves tourists to enter or observe boorish sports. It teaches the local countrified people how to get ambit/cha nce in international game and to compete with opponents. It enables the people of different cultural background to unite with other people and exchange cultural activities between the parties and thereby they are culturally rich.Pro-Poor Tourism Pro Poor tourism is set up in developing countries as a direction to improve the local economy for local people. It enhances the linkages between tourism businesses and poor people so that poverty is reduced and poor people are able to participate more effectively in tourism development. The aims of pro-poor sites from change magnitude local booking to involving local people in the decision making process.Introduction to homespun Tourism in IndiaMajority of India is among the agrestic category with the sanctity and subtleness integral in the very essence of the village soil. This pious environment of the country-style India attracts lot of interest among the tourists in India and thus pastoral tourism is a fast emerging category.A n ational tourism policy was introduced in 2002, with rural tourism place as a focus area to generate use and promote sustainable livelihoods. The politics in its tenth five year plan has focused on the subject of rural tourism. With a rich diversity in culture, heritage, food, crafts, and tradition, India has immense potential and opportunity. It has identified certain areas across the country, which can immediately be developed as the rural destinations.The government partnered with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) for an Endogenous Tourism Project. Some 30 rural sites were selected in 20 states to develop as destinations for rural tourists. The UNDP pumped in an initial US$2.5 million. Those proposals that were selected by the government were entitled to assistance up to US$100,000.Divining Forces in unsophisticated TourismIndustry stakeholders define the rural tourism experience by what they offer as product. But they are simply responding to what they perceive as an increasing demand for experience of rural communities, and interpreting it via their own world views. This demand is determined by a range of forces that combine to create tourist interest in rural experiences. These forces have been identified by many a(prenominal) authors and can be summarised asTourist generating regions for rural tourism are highly developed and urbanised. The stresses of urban living and the remoteness from the natural environment has created a desire for escape from the monoculture of city living.Baby boomers are driven to tourism experiences that yield increased self- cognisantness in their drive for longed for perfection that compensates for lives destabilised by uncertainty and insecurity (Mackay, 1997)Demand fuelled by media, over-familiarity and congestion with traditional tourist resorts and increased interest in alternative attractions with its voracious appetite for heart and the resultant over exposure of many traditional tourist destinations.i ncrease environmental awareness and interest in the traffichip between human beings and the environment. Green issues have raised the attractiveness of rural experiences as ecologically sustainable tourism.Transport, communication, and the removal of political and economic barriers to travel have facilitated availableness of rural areas.Increase in number of free independent travellers re repairable to the increased capacity, especially in long-haul transport modes. When combined with increasing discretional incomes, greater awareness of the range experiences on offer, the accessibility and attractiveness of rural destinations has been dramatically improved.Changing work patterns have increased the popularity of shorter breaks that minimise the absence seizure from work and the effect of absences on work flow and involvement.An increased interest in heritage can be satisfied through rural tourism as rural areas are often the repositories of remnant heritage. artless areas are per ceived as healthier, offering fresher air, cleaner pissing and the opportunity for outdoor recreation. Rural areas offer fresh and speciality food. (Bartmann and Baum, 1998)Issues with Rural TourismThe lack of statistical baseIt is difficult to establish raft and value of rural tourism as a specific market sector in nations, even harder on an international scale. Many countries have different definitions of rural and will therefore collect different data. entropy on rural tourism are not easily obtainable.Rural communitiesThese tend to be non-uniform for example remove versus accessible rural areas convey very different types of settlement, employment opportunities, socio-demographic characteristics. Different community structures with diverse responses to tourism exist.Tourism development strategies may not benefit all rural areasWhere there is an inadequate supply of attractions or accommodation, tourism may not flourish. However marketing strategies must be good to attract to urists. Likewise, development of tourism provision by local people may not be feasible in a depressed rural economy. tint of Rural TourismThe aim of tourism development in rural areas is, in general terms, to provide opportunities for economic and social development. In almost areas, tourism provides the main source of income and employment, as well as providing social and economic benefits. Inevitably, negative aspects of rural tourism are evident as well. (Gannon 1994)EconomicAssists viability of existing tourism and non-tourism business.Encourages dependence on industry inclined to uncontrollable changeCreates new employmentCreates part time, seasonal employmentAttracts inward investmentIncurs development woos and public service costSocio-culturalAssists in viability of local serviceCreates feeling of invasion by touristsCreates sand of prideIncreases crimeRevitalises local culture, traditions, events and craftsReduction in local operateEnvironmentalLeads in environmental im provements in settlementsIncreases wear and tear on landscape featuresProvides income for conservation of buildings and natural environmentCreates engage for new developments which may not be in keeping with local area.Fosters awareness of conservation as worthwhile activityIncreases pollution and affects local biodiversityTable 1 Positive and negative impacts of rural tourismNiche Market A Place in Rural TourismIf the importance of the products one buys lies largely in their potential as social markers, tourism marketers must focus both on tourisms social signification and on meanings attached to spaces in which these occur. Explanations of tourism consumption cannot be derived in isolation from the social relations in which they are embedded. New users of the countryside are redefining what constitutes rurality, and there is a lead to take postmodernism and the construction of the rural much more seriously. Contemporary social construction often transcends the countrysides tangi ble characteristics and qualities of open space or fresh air by representing it as the setting for the achievement of a range of personal goals. The need for a wider sociological approach to tourism studies has been underline by Sharpley, who argues for the recognition of broader social and cultural influences that shape consumer behaviour as a whole and influence consumption patterns. In the interests of the rural environment, therefore, and of the small businesses trying to meet the needs of emerging markets, it is necessary to look beyond classical marketing theory to gain a useful concord of rural tourism consumption and to evaluate the existence of niches for marketing purposes.The increasing need for analysts to focus on consumption as an improved means of realizeing contemporary forms of rural tourism demand requires a participating framework within which the analysis can be conducted. A continuum to tone the relative importance of the countryside to the consumption of t ourism in rural areas is proposed to reason the importance of the countryside to the purpose of the trip and to tourist satisfaction. The significance of the model lies in its recognition of the primacy of neither tourism nor tourist types but the ways in which the countryside is consumed as a recreational resource.Challenges and Opportunities in Rural TourismThe major problem in rural areas is that there is not much telescope for working. Most of the People are engaged in agricultural activities, some of them in forestry and others are artisans. Villages are struggling with large families with one or two earning members in the family and high consumption expenditure. Due to less scope in villages most of them started migrating to cities.There are 638,691 villages in India as per the nosecount Report 2001 and the rural population is 741,660,293 with average population of 1,161 per village. Many of these rural communities have the potential have the potential resources, ability to attract the growing tourism industry. The scenic beauty, historical importance may appeal the urbanites, caught up in todays fast pace of lifestyle.Challenges in Rural TourismThe major challenges are the need to preserve the environment and natural resources and the need for appropriate education.Legislation ProblemsRespondents have pointed out that there can be judicial problems. Tourism is a part of entertainment industry. All hotels, motels and cottages having license pay taxes to government. Rural tourism should have a tax holiday or it should be tax free. The government should encourage rural tourism to grow. wishing Of Trained Man PowerThe ruler people require to be trained for discharging their duties, decorating the cottages and maintaining them, serving food to the visitors and to understand the taste of the costumers, either the local cuisine or different type of Indian cuisine. The success of rural tourism totally depends on the quality of service provided to the touri sts. To develop the manpower government has to take initiative to open various short planning courses for imparting knowledge and skills.Insufficient Financial SupportTo start rural tourism, sufficient fund is required to promote it in introductory phase. Rural tourism is still uncommon to many tourists. This is because the government has just started promoting rural tourism. Central and state government should encourage rural tourism by providing financial support to start the project. As it will create employment in rural areas and will help the inflow of funds from rural areas to urban areas.Lack of Local InvolvementSince rural people do not have knowledge and skills to involve hem in different activities. They may get the job of unskilled workers. The rural people need to develop the knowledge and skills to have a higher involvement in rural tourism. The basic concept behind the rural tourism is the betrothal of rural people. But in practice local people are seldom involved i n decision making, planning and implementing policies. Most of rural people do not have much knowledge of tourism, and are misled by outside investors who hope to take most of the economic benefits from rural area.Language ProblemThere are 16 recognized languages and 850 dialects in India. Although Hindi is an official language, in many parts of India people do not understand it. The rural people have to upgrade themselves to authorise with the urbanites. The villagers not only have to educate themselves but they have to understand hindi to interact with the Indian costumers and English to communicate with the foreign costumers.Opportunities in Rural TourismThe tourists look for quality environment and meaningful experience. merchandise of rural is a specialist job. For rural tourism, rural people have to surrender themselves to professional marketers who understand the complexity of their task. The business depends on the development of networks, creation of trust and loyalty and information system, all of which takes money and time to develop, which is beyond the resources of most individual.Tourists have become more educated, more aware of facilities available and more experienced, their expectation has also increased. People are elicit in exploring new places. Rural tourism in India has great future, since it not only provides natural elements of beauty but also the indigenous local traditions, customs and foods. Direct experience with local people can be a unique selling proposition to attract tourists. Every state in India has unique handicraft, traditions and foods. The rural tourism not go for mass marketing, rather different strategies should be under taken for different segment to make it successful.

Elective Cesarean Section Procedure Health And Social Care Essay

electoral Ces aran Section Procedure wellness And Social C are EssayCesarean sections, once performed to save the deportment of mother or mar, are now offered as an elective result. Women spot elective cesarian sections in the belief that the cognitive operation is safe and vaginal parturition poses risk of harm to themselves or their child. A look at studies and literature shows that these unwanted consequences of vaginal delivery result from the aggressive focusing of campaign by obstetricians. Rather than resorting to major surgery, a return to the tocology model of care will earn mother and babies in low-risk pregnancies.Elective Cesarean SectionOnce reserved as a procedure of last resort to save the life of mother or baby, caesarean delivery section (CS) surgery is now offered as an elective procedure to mothers who entreat to avoid the experience of labor and delivery. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) published a citizens committee opinion in November 2003 supporting the permissibility of elective cesarean delivery in a normal pregnancy, subsequently adequate informed consent(American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ACOG, p. 1101). Women may recognise this option in the belief that circumventing vaginal delivery preserves the lawfulness of their pelvic floor, or provides better cores for their children. Although some believe contain by elective cesarean section (ECS) is preferable to vaginal brook, it can be shown that in low-risk pregnancies, vaginal induce is safer for both mother and baby.Supporters of ECS believe vaginal delivery results in equipment casualty to the pelvic floor, which may lead to urinary incontinence (UI), anal incontinence, sexual dysfunction, or pelvic organ prolapsed (Nygaard Cruikshank, 2003). thither are studies that support this belief. In one study of primiparous women 26 percent had incontinence at six months postpartum, the rate being utmost with elective c esarean (five percent), higher with cesarean during labour (twelve percent), higher calm down following a spontaneous vaginal pedigree (twenty-two percent) and highest following a vaginal forceps delivery (thirty-three percent) (Hannah, 2004, p. 813). The physicians that champion the cause of ECS and the women who buy into their sales delivery for ECS believe they are preventing this damage.However, an ECS may not guarantee prevention of pelvic floor damage, and its benefits are at best short- landmark. Some women who undergo ECS post from incontinence, conjureing pregnancy itself, aprospicient with hereditary indications, are risk factors (Leeman, 2005 Nygaard Cruikshank, 2003). Other studies signalize there are no significant differences between the vaginal parenthood and CS groups at two years postpartum (Goer, 2001). Buschsbaum, Chin, Glantz, and Guzick (2002) found no significant differences exist in the prevalence of UI between nulliparous and parous women after menopa use. Before we point the finger at the natural process of vaginal delivery as the cause of this pelvic floor damage, we should look at the interventions that may cause these problems.Goer (2001) suggests obstetric interventions of second stage labor, not vaginal birth, causes damage to the pelvic floor. Obstetric guidance such as episiotomies, forceps and vacuum extractions, dorsal lithotomy position, and the Valsalva maneuver may be the cause of the pelvic floor compromise the ECS supporters are concerned close. Goer suggests using tumid positions for pushing, following the patients natural urges to push, and elimination of routine episiotomies to decrease the damage to the pelvic floor. If she is correct, and alterations in routine obstetric care remove the concern of pelvic floor damage, then the recourse of the baby becomes the cry of ECS supporters.The ECS supporters argue the safety issue with multiple vociferations for the protective value of skipping labor and vaginal d elivery. They claim we can preemptively protect the fetus by CS prior to the plan of attack of labor. This protection can include the reduction of stillbirth related to post-maturity, damage from oxygen deprivation secondary to cord compression during labor and delivery, and birth trauma related to use of forceps or vacuum extraction (Armson, 2007). For mothers with medical conditions or the compromised fetus, a scheduled CS is a valid option. However, labor and vaginal delivery is a natural, generally safe, process, not something from which the low-risk fetus require protection.Those opposed to ECS believe risks to the infant from vaginal birth are minimum and unfavorable foetal outcomes rare, however, we may be increasing risks due to excess obstetrical interventions during labor and birth. For the low-risk patient, the increase in maternal unwholesomeness and deathrate (Armson, 2007) resulting from major surgery does not justify the possibility of preventing the rare adver se fetal outcome. Better screening of those patients at risk will decent identify those patients who would legitimately benefit from surgery. Similar to the suggestion that obstetric management causes damage to the mothers pelvic floor, Goer (2001) argues that obstetric interventions also put the baby at risk. In first stage labor these interventions include oxytocin augmentation and artificial rupture of membranes. In second stage labor, the same interventions that suffer the mother, such as forceps, vacuum extraction, and sustained Valsalva maneuver, cause trauma for the infant. She suggests patience, tranquillise management of labor and delivery, and respect for mothers natural pushing ability to edit injury to the infant. vaginal delivery with minimal interventions does not need to be headacheed.Despite improvements in the safety of CS over the years, vaginal birth remains safer than a CS for both mother and baby in low-risk pregnancies. In contrast to ACOGs committee opini on, The American College of Nurse-Midwives Identifies vaginal birth as the optimal mode of birth for women and their babies and this practice cesarean section is not supported by scientific evidence (American College of Nurse-Midwives, 2005). Cesarean sections carry significant risks to mother, baby, and interfere with the mother-baby dyad. little(a) term, vaginal birth is the safest choice for low-risk women, eliminating many of the complications inherent to a CS as listed by Armson (2007)The overall risk of severe maternal morbidity was 3.1 times that in the planned vaginal delivery group, including increased risks of postpartum cardiac arrest, wound hematoma, hysterectomy, major puerperal infection, anesthetic complications, venous thromboembolism and exhaust requiring hysterectomy . . . hemorrhage requiring transfusion, hysterectomy and uterine rupture intensive care admission and postpartum readmission to hospital (p. 475).Women who birth vaginally face fewer complications, le ave the hospital quicker, and make a shorter recovery time (Hannah, 2004). The benefits of vaginal birth are not limited to the immediate period of birth and postpartum.The choice between vaginal and CS impact the entire range of a womans childbearing years. prox labors tend to be shorter for women who birth vaginally. Their deliveries are quicker, and they are less probable to need a CS in the future. In comparison, internal pock tissue and adhesions following a CS increases risk factors for future pregnancies, single-handed of the future method of delivery (Leeman, 2006). These risks include infertility ectopic pregnancy miscarriage placenta abnormalities such as placenta previa or placenta acretia and complications of repeat cesarean birth (Armson, 2007, p. 475). Women with placental abnormities face higher maternal mortality and morbidity pass judgment (Lyerly Schwartz, 2004), as well as an increased need for hysterectomies (Armson, 2007). Primary cesarean birth is also a ssociated with increased risks in subsequent pregnancies of preterm delivery, low birth weight, stillbirth and neonatal death (Armson, 2007, p. 476). The mothers choices regarding mode of delivery lease foresighted reaching effects for herself, as well as the child that she carries.Vaginal birth is also the safest choice for babies, as they avoid many of the neonatal complications which follow pre-labor CS. These risks include respiratory problems, persistent pulmonary hypertension, asphyxia, delayed neurological adaptation and neonatal intensive care admission (Armson, 2007, p. 476). Many et al. (2006) suggest that the mechanism of labor benefits the babys respiratory system. Other complications CS babies face are iatrogenic prematurity (Lyerly Schwartz, 2004), and lacerations or other neonatal trauma during surgery (Armson, 2007). Babies born by CS also face long term health risks they are more likely to develop asthma, diabetes, food allergies and corpulency than vaginally bo rn children (Steer, 2009). The benefits to the mother and the baby as individuals also benefit the mother-baby unit.Finally, mother-baby couplets benefit from a vaginal birth in multiple ways. The natural hormonal rush which occurs in labor prepares a woman for breastfeeding and facilitates bonding. Women who birth vaginally have less discomfort and shorter recovery times following birth and are thus better able to care for, and bond with, their babies. This enhances mother-baby interaction and supports babys randy development. Breastfeeding rates are higher and depression rates are set about following vaginal birth (International Cesarean Awareness Network, 2008). These benefits extend long term they establish the foundation of the lifetime mother-child relationship.The decision to give birth by CS greatly affects mother, baby, and future pregnancies and should not be offered electively as if it were a minor cosmetic surgery. The benefits of ECS compared to vaginal birth have not been proven, and the risks are substantial to not just one, but two (or more) patients. Women may fear labor. Birth attendants may fear legal risks from adverse fetal outcomes. These fears do not exhibit that womens bodies are incapable of birthing rather, they indicate the failure of obstetric management of labor. We should not base our decisions on fear or faulty look.We should address the concerns of ECS proponents raise. We need to conduct more research into prevention of pelvic floor damage. The American College of Nurse-Midwives (2005) offers the follow guidelinesSupports womens right to accurate, fit and complete information regarding the risks and benefits of both vaginal birth and cesarean section.Promotes decision-making about mode of delivery that is evidence based and not unduly influenced by factors such as liability, convenience or economics.Supports further research to judge the short and long-term medical, psychosocial, economic and cultural sequelae for mother s, babies, including future pregnancies associated with elective primary(a) cesarean section.As birth attendants follow these guidelines, women will be empower to make informed decisions about their care. These decisions affect the physical and emotional health of these women and their children for a lifetime. We have an obligation to manage birth in a manner that causes the least harm to mother while providing the best outcome for babies.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Wuthering Heights Essay -- Literary Analysis, Emily Bronte

Born in 1818, Emily Bronte, kn bear as the Laureate of the Moors, feargond that people would not read her novel because of her gender. When Bronte turned twenty-seven, she published Wuthering Heights. At approximately the same time, her two sisters, Charlotte and Anne, published their literary works. Looking at Emily Brontes straitlaced novel, Wuthering Heights, this literary work seems to be yet another book most a grumpy man who tries to take revenge on everyone who hurts him throughout his life. Looking deeper into this novel, readers see that the story revolves around several complex characters who must endure indescribable pain and suffering in their quest for love. The Earnshaw family decides to hold back Heathcliff who is the primary character in Wuthering Heights, a family member, Mr. Eanshaws son, Hindley, starts to beat, to hurt, and to mistreat Heathcliff. However, as Heathcliff begins to spend time with Hindleys sister, Catherine, their relationship grows, Heathcliff and Catherine develop feelings for each other, and in turn, fall in love. When Catherine decides to marry Edgar Linton, this new turn-of-events devastates Heathcliff. Even though Edgar is a member of a higher social class than Heathcliff, Catherine secretly trunk in love with her beloved Heathcliff. To illustrate her love for Edgar and her true resentment for Heathcliff, she states, Ive no more business to marry Edgar Linton than I arrive at to be in heaven and if the wicked man in in that location had not brought Heathcliff so low, I shouldnt have thought of it. It would lay me to marry Heathcliff now so he shall never know how I love him and that, not because hes handsome, Nelly, but because hes more myself than I am (63). The manner in which Catherine, Edgar, and... ...k to him. Cathy does not exchangeable him. Once Heathcliff dies she is free to marry whoever she want s and live her own life. She no longer has to be confine anymore. Bell states that, Young Catherine an d Hareton, who are led to beleive, eventually come to love with patience and understanding, but save after Heathcliffs influence is removed(Bell). No one is trapped anymore.Heathcliff experiences much pain and suffering in his search for true love. Heathcliff endures badinage and personal injury from Hindley, insults from Edgar, and profound rejection from his dear Catherine. All of these events contribute to the succeeding anguish that many of the second-generation characters, Cathy, Hareton, and Linton, share throughout the latter part of the novel. later Heathcliffs demise, Cathy and Hareton are now free from the terror and the tragedy that refuge the moors.

the dandelion killer :: essays research papers

The Dandelion KillerThis legend takes place in the beautiful Frankfort, Kentucky. The setting is real. The Evans shop, Elaynas house, Jayboys house are a a couple of(prenominal) places of where this story is set.In the present time, is when this story is set. There isnt an detailed date of when the story takes place.Jayboy Calvin is an interesting person. He is different from anyone else in the story because he is 55 years hoary but has the mind of an 8 year old. The darkness is what scares him the most. He thinks it testament swallow him up, and he will never be able to see his best relay link again. He hates the color black. He wont let his mom sully anything for him thats black. When he gets crayons, hell break the black one in the store before the darkness underside spread. He loves dandelions. His best friend Elayna (or Layna) as he calls her) is the princess of dandelions and he is her trusty knight. Elayna Evans life is full of mysteries. She has upset everyone. Hunt , her husband, disappeared 10 years ago and her daughter Carrie died of meningitis at the age of 4. She has had a lifelong friend, Jayboy. He helps her in many ways through the struggles and she helps him. Shirleene, Elaynas sister-in-law, was brutally murdered one night in her coffee shop. psyche stole a dandelion pin from her shirt, stepped in her blood and at one time the police think it was Jayboy Calvin Could someone with the mind of an 8 years old possibly kill someone? Everyone is trying to figure out who it is and you cant trust anyone.The impression left on me was that friendship lasts a life time. I liked how the author hinted to some things but indeed made them cliff-hangers.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Biblical Character in the Life of Barnabas Essay -- Religion, The Book

As we first meet Joses, in the book of Acts, we learn much closely his person. Joses, who we are told was sur constructd Barnabas by the Apostles, must have spent a commodious amount of time with them, considering he had received a surname from them. Certainly, in time in the free for all social climates that we have in party today, one would not deliberately call someone Fred when his given name was Lawrence unless their be bang-up affection among these acquaintances. Most likely, because Barnabas was a Levite, he may have had previous interactions with the other apostles and through these interactions they were able to view paragons development of his character. This was not insignificant in itself because the granting of a nickname was often seen as a sign of respect. Strongs harmoniousness tells us the Barnabas means exhorter. Joses was nicknamed Barnabas, which means Son of Exhortation, evidently because of his character and might to encourage those who were down mal led. Barnabas the Levite, having no portion of inheritance in the Promised Land showed great character in that he voluntarily sold land that he had acquired on the Island of Cyprus, which is in a region of the Mediterranean Sea. Wherefore Levi hath no part nor inheritance with his brethren the LORD is his inheritance, according as the LORD thy matinee idol promised him. (Deut. 109) The believers were unified not only spiritually (one in heart and mind) but also materially. Their selling of their goods was voluntary and the distribution was according to need. Barnabas may have been a man of considerable financial means, as he did own land. Biblical character is apparent in him as he makes the arduous journey to Cyprus, completes the task of selling the land, and trav... ...le having divested much time having poured break their souls for the workings of spiritual things. What man, having disdain and hatred for another brother would be concerned for his physical well-being? Alas, any Christian would be separate disposed to believe that this beloved brother, Barnabas, exhibited great biblical character by maintaining his charity towards his brother Paul. Though we stir our colleagues, we do not change our principal president. Later, In Galatians 2 we see Barnabas and Paul once again reunited and laboring together in the battlefield, which is the fight for souls. They, having set aside their differences and having influenced some(prenominal) lives while winning multitudes of lost souls to Christ, carry on their unspoken biblical character. Yes, biblical character must be unspoken that it suffer not to be tainted and be truly revealed as pride.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Alzheimers Disease Essay -- Alzheimers Disease Essays

Alzheimers Disease is a condition that affects 50% of the macrocosm over the age of eighty five, which equals four million Americans each year. It is fitting an important and high-profile issue in todays society for everyone. There are fast advancements being do in the fight against this ailment now more(prenominal) than ever, and the purpose of this essay is to educate the public on the background as well as the unused discoveries. There are galore(postnominal) new drugs that are being tested and studied every day which easy down, and may even halt the progress of the disease. In explaining this debilitating disease, it seems there are certain major areas that need to be addressed much(prenominal) as the history of the disease, the symptoms and diagnosis, as well as the emotional and bodily cost to the affected role and to the family. The definition of the illness seems to be unclear for numerous because the disease is so unpredictable. Until recently a precise definit ion of the disease was unavailable due to the difficulty in diagnosis. It is fairly complex, and despite many new breakthroughs it still remains impossible to diagnose a patient with certainty. A great deal of this is because the only exact diagnosis made is after a post-mortem brain examination. Alzheimers Disease is the most overdiagnosed and misdiagnosed mental ail in older adults because it is often decided only by belief out all other possibilities such as dementias caused by medications, strokes, clinical depression and other neurological disorders. However with new research in detective work and prevention, a clear explication is now attainable for the public. Alzheimers Disease is defined as A dementing disorder marked by certain brain changes, disregardless of the age of onset, that leads to the loss... ...eases-and-Disorders/Nervous-System-Diseases/ Central-Nervous-System-Diseases/Brain-Diseases/Alzheimers Disease.html 11. http// SourcesTextA dvances In Alzheimers Research Spring 2004, Vol.1, Number 1Hager, Mary and Peyser, Marc, Battling Alzheimers, Newsweek, work 24, 2004, p.66Websites1. http// employment visited March 28, 20092. gopher// visited March 25, 20093. http// visited March 28, 20094. tornado.einet.net8000/galaxy/medicine/Diseases-and-Disorders/Nervous-System-Diseases/Central-Nervous-System-Diseases/Brain-Diseases/AlzheimersDisease.htmlDate visited March 28. 20095. http// visited April 30, 2009

Analysis of William Blakes Poem London Essay -- William Blake London

Analysis of William Blakes Poem LondonLondon by William Blake is a poem characterised by its dark and overbearing tone. It is a glimpse at a period of Englands history (particularly London) during war and poverty, experienced by the narrator as he walks through the streets. Using personification it draws a great human aspect to its representation of thoughts and beliefs of the narrator.The author uses a verse scheme that mirrors the pace of walking. The pace is moderate using an octameter meter, and each punctuate syllable is like each footfall of the narrator. As he walks through the streets stuffy the River Thames, he notices the common distress in the faces of the citizenry he passes on the way. The author uses alliteration in line four, marks, weakness and woe. It draws emphasis on the skin senses of severity and the widespread effect on these people. The narrator starts to envision that the people around him are all chained in manacles. They are enslaved by the country and disastrous world they live in. Their fears, curses ban and cries of their current call forth are shared. The word mind-forgd gives one the feeling that these peoples minds have formed these shackles that preclude them. The author states this by starting lines five to seven with In either, and repeating the word every. He emphasises the fact that every man, womanhood and child is affected by this shared state. Personification in the voice communication Man and Infant draws importance to the gene...

Monday, March 25, 2019

Communications Theory Essays -- essays papers

communications Theory Communications is that what binds the world. Even though it is comfy to give a simple answer when asked what communicatings exactly is, it is baffling to explain it so that it is understood clearly. There is a lot you inquire to consider with it. There are different areas concerning communications and very different functions in this area. Through this research report we will have a glimpse in the world of communications and with it more knowledge and fellow feeling about it. merged Communication Corporate communication exists of different fields, which in concert have the purpose to make an image and identity of a familiarity and its product. Corporate communication is a management instrument that combines all forms of orient communication and gears them for champion another. Reputation is very important. The first goal of corporeal communication is to improve the report of a family. A corporate reputation is a cognitive representation of a companys index to meet the expectations of its stakeholders. A company benefits from a favourable reputation by becoming the first choice of customers, investors, suppliers and employees. A corporate reputation creates shareowner value, because it contributes in and of itself to the companys competitive position. A company benefits from its reputation, becauseIt improves money flows and profitabilityIt acts like a barrier that impedes rivalryIt provides a company an enhanced license to operate andIt raises a protective shield against downturns and crisis. A company which is specialised in corporate communication is for example The Corporate Communication Centre. C.C.C. is a joint initiative of the Erasmus University (Rotterdam, The Netherlands) and the business community. The centre tries to machinate all the communication activities within a company and gives advice on communication policies and the organisation of communication methods. C.C.C. also offers training i n corporate communication, administrator courses and in-company courses. Companies as drum, Unilever, Compaq Computers and Ernst & Young have a good reputation. They are multinational enterprises. They need a good reputation to be the number one in their field. Especially Shell, because its product (fuel, gasoline) is bad for the environment. But by introducing Shell Pura... ...alled Visual Communications Quarterly.It is co-sponsored by the Viscom division (also a visual communication organisation) and the National Press Photographers.BibliographyResource listThe Media Institute Communication investigate Center for education in journalism and Mass Communications History Monographs quarterly online journal the Premier Magazine of wideband Communication www.cedmagazine.comwww.ivca.orgwww.viscom.apanet.orgwww.artic.eduwww.herron.iupui.ed uThe Blake Agencyhttp// & associateshttp// McRae Agencyhttp// is in charge? Corporate communications or corporate marketing?A European survey amongst the sort out reputation leading companiesCentre for corporate communications, mem institute at the university of St. Gallen, Switzerland work paper, 1999 Markus Will, Malte Probst and Thomas SchmidtThe reputational Landscape 1997 vol 1 C. van Riel and C. Fombrun

Lying from the Tip of Our Tongues Essays -- Essays Papers

Lying from the Tip of Our TonguesTell the truth, live the truth, do the truth, or there will be terrible consequences.-Gwen Rice Clark You come done and through the door and you see that look in their eyes, they know. All this time, all told those lies all of it just to make sure that they didnt have to know, all so they didnt get that look in their eyes. Now you enter yet into the room and theres no stopping the inevitable, one concomitant remained. You lied. For whatever reason, whatever excuse you hoped was logical enough in your consciousness so that it didnt seem as wrong as it real was, that doesnt matter. Because the motives and the analyzing were and are in the end moot points, as it is said, through it all the end does not justify the means, Eluki bes Shahar. Like it or not, thats what fable is, a means to an end. Why should people business concern about it? Thats too broad an enigma to tackle so impulsively. First one must challenge the nature of the problem because it is a problem. For no matter who you are, how honest you might think yourself or how many lies you have told, at the end of the day, not even you know the solvent to this question Why do people lie? Lying is creation deceitful. It is construed in more cases than not, as the opposite of being truthful. Yet, theres more to it than that. A person can lie without actually verbalize anything false. Theres such a thing as lying by omission and little white lies to keep people garbled as to what dishonesty is. In reality, mendaciousness is a sickness that haunts its nurturers without letting go. Then, afterward a while, a person can get so sizeable at this skill that they even begin to lie to themselves. Whats the i..., Lisa. The Nonverbal Cues of Deception. 20 May. 2002. 7 April. 2004. Schweitzer, Maurice E. and Christopher K. Stretching the Truth Elastic vindication and Motivated Communication of Uncertain Information. 2002. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty. 8 April. 2004. Vrij, Aldert, Lucy Akehurst, Stavroula Soukara, and Ray Bull. Detecting Deceit Via Analyses of Verbal and Nonverbal Behavior in Children and Adults. January 2004. Ohiolink. 7 April, 2004. Willer, Jeremy. Interpersonal Deception Theory. 7 April. 2004.

A Career In Marketing Essay -- Careers Jobs essays research papers

institutionChoosing a c beer in marketing can lead a individual in many another(prenominal) different directions within the square upd roles of marketing. Composed of many facets and activities marketing careers offer a variety of avenues for the career minded to research while offering growth and opportunities for advancement. A common denominator for many who prefer a career in this field is the sense of ownership, or entrepreneurial spirit with regards to the harvest-festivals or services that they are deforming to market. market requires that an agreement of customers needs and desires be acquired and then translated into both harvest-festival development as well as communications as part of the marketing strategy. This newspaper will explore what is entailed in a career in marketing, as well as what the future holds for the profession. Because marketing professionals are needed by every company and in every industry, the career potential and chances for determinati on ones niche within the career field are virtually unlimited. bedrock of sellingA broad(a) definition of marketing is the process of the intermediary function between product development and sales. (Reddy ) The field of marketing entails winning a generic product or generic service (the product or services do not have to be generic they may be actually unique to the marketplace) and associating the generic product with a brand name (Petty 2001). Under this generic concept are the activities of advertising, semipublic relations, media planning, sales strategy and so on. Marketing professionals create, manage and/or prove brands in order to create or bolster demand for the product. A successful marketing plan will help assure that consumers looking beyond just the price or function of a product when making a purchasing decision, in part, a well aforethought(ip) marketing effort will create a feel good association about the product the consumer is about to purchase (Petty) A name part of a career in marketing is to understand the needs, preferences, and constraints that define the target group of consumers or the market niche corresponding to the brand. This is do by market research. This is accomplished through market research, essentially utilise survey techniques, statistics, psychology and social understanding to help gather study on what consumers want and/or need, and then designing products, or services, to hopefully meet ... per week. (Locke) Those entering the field must be able to work well under pressure and thrive off meeting deadlines and goals that are set. In some positions, substantial travel is not uncommon. In acrimony of the rigors associated with a career in marketing the outlook for the profession is bright. Marketing is a vital necessity not only for business firms, plainly is also needed and utilized by governments, educational, religious, social service, and nonprofit organizations or institutions. Perhaps the most al luring aspect of a career in marketing is the fact that it provides a great number and variety of ruminate opportunities, and can offer opportunities to both number crunchers as well as intuitive creative people as well. BibliographyBeckman Theodore N. Davidson William R. (1997) Marketing Ronald Press Inc.Hills Gerald (1994) Marketing and Entrepreneurship Quorum BooksLocke Christopher, (2001) Gonzo Marketing Winning through Worst Practices Perseus Publishing Petty Ross D. Editors Introduction The What and Why of Marketing American Business Journal, Vol. 36, 1999Reddy C. Allan (1999) Quality Marketing, Gaining Markets Shares Quorum Books, 1998

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Rose Ziegler :: Biography

blush wine Ziegler grew up in Pennsylvania Amish Country. After marrying, she moved to okey where she make her spirit generally in traditional medicine, but her trading has everlastingly been the contract of moral Science. Though she admits much of what is known of the moral sciences is steeped in east apparitional philosophies, her emphasis has been on the science posterior such principles. Rose Ziegler grew up in Pennsylvania Amish Country. After marrying, she moved to Oklahoma where she made her living primarily in traditional medicine, but her avocation has always been the study of Mental Science. Though she admits much of what is known of the mental sciences is steeped in Eastern religious philosophies, her emphasis has been on the science behind such principles. Rose Ziegler grew up in Pennsylvania Amish Country. After marrying, she moved to Oklahoma where she made her living primarily in traditional medicine, but her avocation has always been the study of Mental Science. Though she admits much of what is known of the mental sciences is steeped in Eastern religious philosophies, her emphasis has been on the science behind such principles. Rose Ziegler grew up in Pennsylvania Amish Country. After marrying, she moved to Oklahoma where she made her living primarily in traditional medicine, but her avocation has always been the study of Mental Science. Though she admits much of what is known of the mental sciences is steeped in Eastern religious philosophies, her emphasis has been on the science behind such principles. While in Oklahoma, Rose spent seven age in a formal study of Metaphysics and served as Director of a school branch for several years. She has taught hundreds of students and has had various articles published in newspapers and magazines.

Camera Techniques Used in Hitchcock’s Thriller Movie, Vertigo Essay

camera Techniques Used in Hitchcocks Thriller Movie, sillinessA thriller is a suit of film that usually instills excitement and suspense into the audience. A thriller is commonly draw as a tense edge of the seat environment. The exposure, Vertigo, is one of the intimately famous thrillers ever made. However, Vertigo does not fit into the stereotypical musical style of thriller. Vertigo, often viewed as an experimental film because it was one of the first study thrillers of that time that utilise many different and innovative camera techniques. These techniques used in this film are different types of lighting, montage, intense music, etc. Vertigo is known to be one of Hitchcocks best movies because of his unique superstar of style and his famous Hitchcock signature The movie Vertigo is about a detective who is hired to follow his friends wife Madeline. In actuality, however, he is being tricked to participate in a murder. Throughout the movie the detective, Scottie, ends up falling for Madeline while she is stringing him along her hidden agenda. Even though at the forefront of the movie Madeline...

Saturday, March 23, 2019

Politics :: essays research papers

MINNESOTAS 4TH U.S. HOUSE pickThere are three candidates running for manganeses quaternary U.S. House Democrat, Betty McCollum Republican, Linda Runbeck and Independent, Tom Foley. The issues at hand are Healthcare, prescription medicine drugs, and education.Betty McCollum calibrated with a B.S. degree out of Cathrine College. She taught grade school and was a gross revenue manager for twenty- five years up until her political biography began in 1986. She served on St. Pauls City Council from1986 through 1992. In 1992 Betty was elected to the Minnesota House of Re usher inatives and was the only legislator to defeat two incumbents in a single year. Her Legislative accomplishments include the passing of Minnesotas more or less comprehensive school bus safety laws and two constitutional amendments which a) allows citizens to take elected officials for wrong doing , b) provides bonuses to veterans of the Persian Gulf War. She lively serves on the multiple sclerosis Parkway Commi ssion, a ten state joint commission to treasure the environment.Betty McCollum wants to invest over half of non- affable security surplus to insure a long-term solvency of Medicare that can be extended to prescription drugs and other checkup necessities for of age(p)s and people with disabilities as a means of getting quality, affordable health care. She also wants to hold drug companies accountable drug pricing policies in order to make prescription drugs more available for seniors. Finally McCollum wants to curve class size improve teacher quality, modernize school buildings and dilate available technology to better education.Republican, Linda Runbeck graduated Bethel College with a B.A. in sociology/ social work. Her political career consists of being the state senator in district 53, from 1993 to the present state representative 52A from 1989- 1992 and council member of City of Circle Pines from 1984- 1987. Her professional career began as a caseworker for Ramsy County soc ial servicesbetween1968-69. Later, Runbeck was an advertising executive for County pose Stores & Dahlberg Inc., and owned a Miracle Ear franchise from1991-1995. Today she is the co- owner of Braham monument Co. McCollum supports state standards on local school implementation and encourages a secret code tolerance for violence within the schools. Also, she wants to allow kids to transfer school districts if their current school is too dangerous. McCollum wants to make the government less influential in health care. She feels through individual responsibility in the form of co- pays and deductibles. She supports Minnesotas Senior Prescription Drug Program, which offers financial help to senior living on a fixed income and whose said income largely goes to prescription drugs.