Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Leonardo Da Vinci Research Paper Essay Example Essay Example

Leonardo Da Vinci Research Paper Essay Example Paper Leonardo Da Vinci Research Essay Introduction Famous figures are usually discussed in terms of perfection and flawlessness. That is how people first view Leonardo da Vinci. He was born in 1452, in the town of Vinci, Italy, and admittedly he was an extraordinary child, always fascinated with the scenery and objects around him. When he was around the age of twelve, his biological father sent da Vinci’s drawings to a famous Florentine painter and sculptor, Andrea del Verrocchio. He thought da Vinci’s drawings were very impressive and soon it was arranged for Leonardo da Vinci to become an apprentice. Under the care and teachings of Andrea del Verrocchio, da Vinci learned how to prepare wooden panels for painting, how to grind color by hand, how to make varnish for protecting finished paintings, and much more. As the years went by, da Vinci showed increasing mastery in the fields of science, engineering, and art. He thought up some of the greatest ideas that are still used today such as cars, submarines, helicopters, f lying machines, which would not even have been invented for many more years. People wonder why da Vinci was not recognized as a great artist while he was alive. Unfortunately, Leonardo da Vinci had flaws, just like any other human being. He procrastinated on many of his assigned projects and was very disorganized. He died unhappy because he did not think anything was ever accomplished. He was given many opportunities to prove his genius, but he failed to complete most of his projects which kept him from being acknowledged as a mastermind while he was still alive. Leonardo Da Vinci Research Essay Body Paragraphs Even though Leonardo da Vinci portrayed many characteristics of a modern high school student such as disorganization, procrastination, and incompletion of many projects, the projects that were finished are looked upon as masterpieces of the Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci was a messy and disorganized child and a secretive young adult. Unfortunately, he did not change this habit as he grew older. When he was young, da Vinci collected things that interested him and kept them in his room. Consequently, his room was a messy jungle of animals and objects which he never allowed people to see, being afraid that they might disband his collections. As he grew older, da Vinci kept his notebooks close and continuously filled them with incredible and innovative ideas and drawings. Some of his entries were short jottings and improvements of his inventions but others were â€Å"lengthy and elaborate† entries that went into detail about his numerous projects (Pannapacker 4). Leonardo da Vinci had so many remarkable ideas and he was so â€Å"ahead of his time† it is almost impossible to believe he came up with those inventions (Pannapacker 1). Leonardo da Vinci returned to his notebooks intermittently, revising his thoughts and â€Å"adding drawings and textual elaborations† throughout his life (Pannapacker 4). Most of the additions he made were scribbles on the margins of his notebook. He was paranoid that someone would steal his ideas so da Vinci wrote his notebooks in code. One could only decipher his writings if he held the notebook upside down in front of a mirror. Being left handed, he also wrote from right to left. Even cryptographers have had a hard time trying to decode his notebooks seeing as they are so messy and crammed with information. Da Vinci kept his notebooks for at least thirty-five years and more than five thousand of his manuscripts have been recovered. Da Vinci’s intelligence and artistic skills were publicized only after his de ath when historians discovered his notebooks. Historians describe Leonardo da Vinci as an inveterate procrastinator because he never started or finished projects on time. He seemed â€Å"endlessly distracted† by his notebooks and experiments because he understood the â€Å"fleeting quality of imagination† (Pannapacker 3). Leonardo da Vinci believed that if one did not get an insight down on paper and later develop it while the â€Å"excitement lasts† one is â€Å"squandering the rarest† and â€Å"most unpredictable† of his human capabilities which feels like the moments are â€Å"touched by the hand of God† (Pannapacker 3). One of the biggest examples of da Vinci’s procrastinations were his notebooks. He kept them for a long time, away from people’s eyes and never thought of ever publishing them, stating that they were â€Å"never quite finished† (Williams 45). He left his notebooks a mess and never published â€Å"the treatises† that could have modernized science during his lifetime. Furthermore, Leonardo da Vinci was more interested by his inventions and solving the glitches of those inventions rather than actually trying to build them. His procrastination caused him much grief in later years and despite his contributions he felt he could have achieved much more. As a result of his procrastination, da Vinci did not receive very good pay therefore he was never able to live in lavish homes or have any luxurious possessions. Doodling while the hours passed by, the genius who changed the world wasn’t an expert at getting things done. When Leonardo da Vinci learned about a new topic, he was usually very enthusiastic. Unfortunately, he dropped each subject he was learning after he had â€Å"mastered its rudiments† and continued on to study new subjects, which he would eventually get tired of and forget about (Williams 12). Da Vinci was also â€Å"afraid of success† and never gave his best effort because there was â€Å"no chance of failure that way† (Pannapacker 1-2). Many scientists, historians, and artists could consider Leonardo da Vinci foolish because he â€Å"could never really finish† the projects that he started and he â€Å"never realized most of his inventions in real terms†. He didn’t even begin to think about building these â€Å"marvelous inventions† (Hines 1). Da Vinci’s notebooks were full of illustrations and descriptions about things that were not even going to be invented for many years later. Throughout his lifetime, Renaissance leaders such as Lorenzo the Magnificent and the de Predis family gave Leonardo da Vinci many painting and sculptures to complete. In January of 1478, da Vinci received his first commission as an independent artist. It was an altarpiece for the Chapel of San Bernardo, but he never finished and no one knows what the reason was behind leaving it incomplete, but many peop le believe he could have been lost in his research and notebooks that he forgot what the original purpose of his research was. Leonardo da Vinci never thought small, it was always the bigger the better. At one point in his life, da Vinci wanted to make sculpture of a horse out of 160,000 pounds of metal. He started the project with great enthusiasm, but soon ran into a problem. He had no idea how to bring the horse to life. In order to continue his project, da Vinci drew sketches and studied horses that could have been used as models. He became so lost in his studies of horses that he forgot what his original plan was. Along with these two projects, Leonardo da Vinci left many more unfinished, such as another altarpiece for Monk’s high altar and a painting for the Predis family. Leonardo da Vinci died unhappy, thinking that he hadn’t accomplished in his lifetime. Leonardo da Vinci was the best representation of the idea of a Renaissance man, one who mastered everything from human and animal anatomy to sculptures and paintings. He accomplished wonders such as opening up a new world of beauty, devoted himself to science, and went from a humble village to palaces of princes, popes, and kings. It is debated whether he was a greater engineer, anatomist, or naturalist. Da Vinci’s contributions to art are shown not only in his early works and masterpieces, but also in his many writings. His first major work was â€Å"The Baptism of Christ† in which he co-worked with his mentor, Verrocchio. After seeing what da Vinci had painted, Verrocchio â€Å"threw down his brush† and never painted again (Williams 22). His style of art closely paralleled that of Verrocchio, but he gradually moved away from his teacher’s â€Å"stiff, tight, and somewhat rigid treatment of figures† to develop a more â€Å"evocative and atmospheric handling of composition† which led him to complete some of the world’s most famous and asto unding painting of all time (Hooker 5). His first individual work was â€Å"The Annunciation† which shows when the angel Gabriel informed Mary she would bare the child of God. This painting showed his increased mastery in the field of art. Da Vinci created many works of art that are considered masterpieces. The most famous of these are his portraits of â€Å"Lisa del Giocondo,† also known as â€Å"Mona Lisa,† and â€Å"The Last Supper. † The â€Å"Mona Lisa† is one of the most famous works of art in the world today. Many people wonder who she is and why she is smiling. â€Å"The Last Supper† is famous for two main reasons, Judas, the traitor of Jesus Christ, is positioned behind the table, unlike any other portrayal of this painting. The other reason is how much John, one of the twelve disciples, who is sitting next to Jesus Christ â€Å"looks like a woman† (Hooker 3). This painting has been considered â€Å"one of the most profound works of man† by artist of all generations (Williams 59). The painting is not entirely visible because the wall on which it is painted on was damp and da Vinci used oil and tempera paints. Soon after it was finished it started to peel off the walls. It has been repainted and restored many times. These paintings are not just important because of the aspects of them but also how da Vinci makes them look so life like. Their facial expressions show his deep knowledge of human anatomy and his artistic skills. Leonardo da Vinci also decorated the courtyard and palace where Lodavico’s nephew was getting married. The sight was breathtaking. It looked more like a painting rather than the real thing. The guests were amazed by it. Da Vinci’s reputation grew along with his confidence. Soon, he left Verrocchio and set up his own studio. Leonardo da Vinci is considered one of our world’s most significant and influential people in the world. His notebooks are full of dra wings and notes of ideas and inventions that no one of that time had ever thought of. Living in the Renaissance time period, da Vinci came up with some of the most astounding masterpieces. He portrayed many characteristics of a high school student such as disorganization, procrastination, and incompletion of many projects. When Leonardo da Vinci died, he appealed to God, â€Å"Tell me if anything ever was done. Tell me if anything ever was done† (Pannapacker 1). But one must look past the superficial things that a person might have in order to realize their true genius. It is arguable whether da Vinci’s working habits are dire or not but one thing is for sure, Leonardo da Vinci was truly a genius that is looked upon with great admiration by many scientists and artists. 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Sunday, November 24, 2019

Explaining the theories of play Essay Example

Explaining the theories of play Essay Example Explaining the theories of play Paper Explaining the theories of play Paper This paper explores how drama helps in the mental, societal, emotional and cognitive development in kids. By explicating the theories of drama, it besides explores how drama has changed over the old ages due to technological alterations and the cognitive, mental, societal emotional and societal alterations which take topographic point when kids play. Other facets of drama which are explored includes its part as an mercantile establishment for kids to cover with experiences in the environment. Play is so of import to a kid s development that it is promoted by the United Nations 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 31.1, which recognizes the right of the kid to rest and leisure, to prosecute in drama and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the kid and to take part freely in cultural life and the humanistic disciplines ( WHO, 1989 ) . Acknowledging that kids need clip to prosecute in self-driven drama is of kernel among parents, health professionals and pedagogues. Play promotes the cognitive, societal, emotional and physical development of the kid hence it should non be underestimated. Children besides develop and beef up accomplishments such as linguistic communication development, job resolution, negotiating, and sequencing accomplishments which will be used in farther acquisition ( Singer et al. , 2006 ) . The function of drama in kids development has been illustrated in assorted theoretical accounts and theories. For case, Jean Piaget s theoretical accounts of kid development and acquisition are based on the perceptual experience that when a kid grows, it develops knowledge constructions and mental images ( strategies ) or linked constructs to understand and react to physical conditions in the environment. This are necessitated through drama activities therefore harmonizing to Piaget, a kid s construction in knowledge develops from innate physiological reactions to complex mental activities ( Singer et al. , 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Almon J. ( 2004 ) Piaget identifies four developmental phases which include Sensory motor where the kid at birth to two old ages builds constructs about how world works with the environing environment. At this phase, a kid does nt hold object permanency ( cognition that physical objects exist when non sighted ) . In the pre-occupational phase, the kid does nt gestate abstractly and needs physical fortunes which are concrete ( age of seven to 11 old ages ) . At two to seven old ages, the kid is in the concrete operational phase where he begins to gestate and explicate physical experiences by logical constructions and can besides prosecute in abstract job work outing. In the formal operations phase, knowledge constructions are adult like and embrace conceptual logical thinking. On the footing of the above phases hence, Piaget develops the cognitive theory of drama which outlines the cognitive rules of how knowledge can be built in kids ( Smith D. , 1995 ) . Harmonizing to this theory, Repetition of experiences through drama necessitates assimilation in the kid s constructions of knowledge therefore the kid sustains a mental equilibrium. New or different experiences cause loss of equilibrium and alter the kid s cognitive construction to suit new conditions therefore more and more constructions of knowledge are erected. Formalized acquisition every bit good as linguistic communication development is enhanced in playing kids. Coolhan K. et Al. ( 2000 ) suggests that chances for larning unwritten communicating is presented to the kid and this early development of linguistic communication will subsequently be utile in reading and composing. In add-on, kids develop problem-solving accomplishments as they play. Some of the playing activities they engage in require critical thought accomplishments like edifice with blocks, playing with H2O and sand, making mystifiers, or building and planing their inventive drama country ( Huertwitz S. , 2002 ) . Free kid driven play will do a kid funny about his or her universe and this facilitates farther acquisition. Therefore harmonizing to Ginsburg K. ( 2001 ) , when allowed to prosecute countries of their ain involvement, kids are likely to develop a positive attitude towards larning. Harmonizing to Jean Piaget, Play creates an ambiance which is relaxed where larning can take topographic point easy. In add-on, Piaget suggests that drama is non similar to acquisition and for development in knowledge to happen, there has to be assimilation and version. He further refers to play as assimilation in the absence of adjustment. Jean Piaget outlines four types of drama viz. physical or centripetal motor drama where a kid engages in repeat of physical activity such as vacillation of the pess or back throwing of the caput for sheer enjoyment of making so. In symbolic drama, the kid has a mental representation of non present worlds. In this type of drama Piaget suggests that It is chiefly affectional struggles that appear in symbolic play.A If there is a scene at tiffin, for illustration, one can be certain that an hr or two afterward it will be recreated with dolls and will be brought to a happier solution.A If the kid has been frightened by a Canis familiaris, in a symbolic game things will be arranged so that Canis familiariss will no longer be average or kids will go brave ( Piaget, 1912 ) . Examples of types of drama which encompass Piaget s types include ; A A Games of pivots ( Construction ) which A A Involve larning by chance from symbolic drama. On this type of drama, Piaget suggested that they are ab initio imbued with drama symbolism but tend subsequently to represent echt versions or solutions to jobs and intelligent creative activities Piaget, 1962.A A Other games include Games holding arbitrary regulations, games affecting two or more participants, board games with regulations, athleticss and card games ( Prunus dulcis J. , 2004 ) Hurtwitz S. ( 2002 ) suggests that originative drama signifiers portion of originative activity in kids which enables them to show themselves openly and without judgement and its shown when familiar stuffs are used in an unusual manner particularly when kids engage in inventive drama and role-playing. Creativity nurtures a kid s emotional wellness and the experiences underwent during their first old ages of life can significantly develop their creativeness. It fosters mental development by supplying chances for seeking out new thoughts, ways of problem-solving and thought ( Singer et al. , 1996 ) . Children need to be provided with originative stuffs and experiences like drawing/painting, picture taking, music, field trips, working with wire, clay, paper, wood, H2O or shadows. Time is needed to research these stuffs on their ain in order to purse their thoughts. This involves clip to believe about how to be after, design, concept, experiment and revision undertaking thoughts. Assortm ents experiences like field trips, observing vacations and activities with other cultural groups and promoting kids to convey visitants to school leads to creativeness. Children should hold more personal experiences with people and state of affairss outside of their ain environment, in order to integrate them in their drama ( Smith D. , 1995 ) . Harmonizing to Piaget, drama in kids enhances cognitive development which is achieved when there is a continued equilibrium between assimilation ( enforcing a scheme which exists on the universe ) and adjustment ( where the scheme are modified to suit the universe ) .For illustration through pretension drama, a kid imposes mental scheme on the universe therefore assimilation and they besides observe or imitate past events or activity therefore adjustment ; drama besides facilitates creative activity of tenseness between adjustment and assimilation which contributes to development in the kid ( Coolhan K. et al. , 2000 ) . Piaget to boot suggests that when kids play with objects ( pivots ) they develop symbolic abstract ideas and they construct their cognition through societal group interaction which is internalized into idea. Fantasy drama or lone drama in babyhood become concerted and negotiated therefore lending to the societal, cognitive and emotional position ( personality ) of th e kid ( Singer et. Al. , 2006 ) . Play develops societal accomplishments in kids particularly when playing house and taking up the functions of different household members. Vygotsky cites a state of affairs of two sisters playing at being sisters. They get good behaviors and dealingss between them that are neer noticed in day-to-day life state of affairss. Therefore drama allows interaction between kids as they communicate with each other, socialise in drama and listen to thoughts of others ( Vygotsky, 1978 ) . Cooperation is besides enhanced in these kids as they discover the importance of working together and sharing the drama tools available. Incase of struggles, they are able to negociate for better continued playing. Furthermore, a socially healthy kid adjusts good in school are more likely to execute good academically ( Smith D. , 1995 ) . Motor accomplishment development is enhanced by active drama activities in kids. They gravitate to physical activity when left on their ain. In drama, they perform many activities like running and leaping which leads to physical fittingness. Children who do nt play are more prone to fleshiness and many other complications. Apart from big musculus accomplishments, active drama besides enhances the development of little motor accomplishments when kids build, pigment or drama with clay. Acquisition and polish of accomplishments necessary for successful acquisition in school is via active drama ( Ginshburg K. , 2001 ) . Freud developed the psychoanalytic theory and related it to play in kids. Harmonizing to him, drama gives kids a good platform to talk out unrealized wants and helps in uncovering hidden, unconscious wants and struggles. Through drama, kids resolve tensenesss and construct their cognitive, emotional and moral facets of life therefore lending to their personality. Children initiate drama activities and through this, they are able to pass on symbolically through verbal and non verbal agencies, e.g. through such drama activities like narrative and narrative relation or those which involve delegating functions ( Singer et al. , 2006 ) Harmonizing Freud, Play in kids helps to alleviate assorted signifiers of anxiousness which include nonsubjective anxiousness, the fright of the external universe ; instinctual anxiousness ; the fright of 1s ain inherent aptitudes and the anxiousness of scruples ( ace self-importance ) . Freud farther suggests that kids during babyhood can non oppose actively and defend themselves from the outside universe either physically or by alteration harmonizing to their will. Their self-importance therefore in all sorts of ways enterprises to support itself against it by agencies of physical force or to modify it in conformity to their ain will ( Freud, 1936 ) The self-importance in kids harmonizing to Freud therefore defends itself by denial of world by phantasy, transmutation of world to accommodate ain intent and carry through ain wants and it is at this point that the kid accepts world. He suggests that kids express denial in signifier of drama utilizing word or art. He suggested that ; A little pocketbook or bantam umbrella is intended to assist a small miss to feign to be a grown-up lady.A Toy arms of assorted kinds enable a small male child to ape manhood.A Even dolls create the fiction of maternity, while trains, autos, or blocks produce in the heads of kids the agreeable phantasy that they can command the universe .A ( Freud, 1936 ) Erik Erikson derived the theory of kid development in which he suggested that development and socialisation procedures occur in specific preset phases and he focused on the societal facet of development. He divided life in eight phases each with a alone clip frame and features. Harmonizing to Erickson, each phase of development has a negative result and he termed this as an identity crisis . In Erickson s phases hence, I will concentrate on the first four phases which are important to play and the kid s societal development ( vocalist et. al. , 2006 ) Harmonizing to Erikson, satisfactory acquisition and declaration of each crisis is necessary if the kid is to pull off the following and subsequent 1s satisfactorily, merely as the foundation of a house is indispensable to the first floor, which in bend must be structurally sound to back up the 2nd floor ( vocalist et al. , 2006 ) . Erickson besides suggests that larning Trust Versus Mistrust occurs in the first one or two old ages and at this phase he asserts that if the kid is given good nurturing and love, drama is facilitated therefore trust and security is developed. On the other manus, if handled severely, insecurity and misgiving is inculcated in the kid and this bounds play activity which will subsequently attest in the kid as intervention of others with intuition and misgiving ( Smith D. , 2000 ) . The 2nd phase, Autonomy versus Shame, harmonizing to Erickson takes topographic point in early childhood, between 18 months to four old ages. The kid if good parented comes out this phase certain about himself, has elation with his control and is proud and non ashamed. If hapless parenting is given, drama activity is curbed and therefore a psychosocial crisis which encompasses a stormy kid with fits negativity and obstinacy ensues ( Hurtwitz s. , 2002 ) . This crisis is negative to play activity in the kid impacting the societal development of the kid. Harmonizing to Erickson, The 3rd phase, Initiative versus Guilt, consequences in happening of crisis during the drama age in ulterior preschool old ages. At this phase, the healthy developing child learns to conceive of drama activity and to broaden accomplishments via active drama of assorted sorts which may include phantasy. The kid besides learns to collaborate with others and to take every bit good as to follow. However if guilt is inculcated in the kid, he becomes fearful, does non take part in drama, depends unnecessarily on grownups and drama accomplishments are restricted in development and imaginativeness ( singer et al. , 2006 ) . The 4th phase as per Erickson is Industry versus Inferiority which occurs between school age and junior high school and at this phase, the kid Masterss accomplishments of life with respect to associating with other equals in conformity with regulations, go oning from free drama to play which may be structured by regulations and participates in formal teamwork e.g. baseball while prosecuting in societal surveies and arithmetic ( Alman J. , 2004 ) . Homework is necessary and self-discipline additions annually. Therefore a kid who has passed the old phases successfully through drama activity and good nurturing will be hardworking. Establishing on the above phases, Erikson perceived the universe of drama as of import to early phases of development of a kid as it offers a safe topographic point for the kid to work through his struggles for illustration kids can be seen forcing dolls in preschool in the same manner that they were pushed. They besides engage in function playing household members or other people and this frequently common. Harmonizing to Erickson, drama creates a safe universe in which effects are neither strong nor the bounds rigid. For illustration, some of the favourite things kids in preschool do include function playing, parents, instructors, monsters and wild animate beings ( Smith D. , 1995 ) . Harmonizing to Erickson hence, drama gives the kid an chance to form thoughts, phantasies and feelings in a program of drama. Therefore drama facilitates emotional development and allows geographic expedition of thoughts and relationships with less uncertainty, guilt and fake. Classical Theories of Play Harmonizing to the Surplus Energy Theory, a kid is motivated to play if he or she has a demand to let go of excess energy and drama occurs due to surplus energy which exists when kids are set free from their parents self saving activities.A Through the aimless legion drama activities, excess energy is released. However this theory does non explicate why people and kids with small energy engage in drama activities ( Ginsburg K. , 2001 ) . The relaxation theory was devised by Lazarus in 1883A and Patrick in 1916 and it plays a function in kids and is a manner of let go ofing suppressions which have accumulated from weariness as a consequence of comparatively new undertakings to kids. Therefore in kids, A Play replenishes used energy as a consequence of unfamiliar activities of knowledge that kid engages in. Harmonizing to the relaxation theory, kids and other people play because they need to loosen up and be off from normal life s emphasiss ( Singer et al. , 2006 ) . The readying Theory ( Instinct/Practice ) on the other manus suggests that drama prepares kids for grownup life through instruction: e.g. through such activities as squad work and function playing activities ( James et al ) . The palingenesis theory perceives hat activities which re-enact events from history are per se honoring e.g. hunting, throwing games, fell and seek and chasing. However, many of these activities do non reflect history ( Hurtzwitz, S. , 2002 ) . Harmonizing to the Cathartic Theory, kids play because of the demand of look of disorganised and painful emotions in a mode which is harmless. For illustration, kids may re-enact their penalties e.g. by call on the carpeting a doll. Children can let go of and finish antecedently restrained feelings by playing e.g. , spliting balloons, thumping clay, or pluging an hyperbolic bunching bag ) ( Schaefer, 1999 ) . This sort of emotional release is of import in psychotherapeutics ( Ginsberg, 1993 ) . The Compensation Theory perceives play in kids occurs to fulfill the psychic demands through their work e.g. drilling and insistent activity. However, this theory does non to the full account for the motive to play. Children who may desire to hit their friends because of choler can airt this action into drama utilizing war-like board games ( cheat, draughtss ) , card games ( war ) , or competitory athleticss activities ( Almon J. , 2004 ) . Some of the modern and station modern theories of drama which have been formulated include: Competence/Effectance Theory which perceives Humans as being out to seek and optimise their rousing degrees. This is due to the demand to bring forth interactions with the environment i.e. from kid to grownup. Harmonizing to this theory, arousal optimisation and demand for interaction with the environment leads to an consequence which gives kids a feeling of competency and is honoring to them. Though this theory accounts for general motive, it can non divide drama from work ( Smith D. , 1995 ) . A A Harmonizing to the Pre-Exercise Theory developed by Groos ( 1898 ) , drama in kids is a necessary pattern for indispensable behaviour in ulterior endurance. Thus the playful tactics for illustration contending carnal games or the unsmooth drama of kids are the portraiture of accomplishments which will help in their endurance and get bying later in life ( singer et al. , 2006 ) . Other theories include the palingenesis theory by G Stanley Hall ( 1906 ) and Wundt ( 1913 ) which perceives drama non as an activity which necessitates future instinctual accomplishments but serve to alleviate kids of unneeded familial instinctual accomplishments carried.A Harmonizing to this theory, Each kid passes through a series of drama phases matching to and recapitulating the cultural phases in the development of the race .A A Appleton in 1919 devised the growing theory which define drama as a response to generalise growing thrust in kids and ease the command of accomplishments which aid them in grownup map. A On the other manus, the Ego Expanding theories were developed by Lange in 1902 and Claparde in 1911 and they perceived drama as the manner of nature to finish the self-importance and thereby organizing the personality of the person in footings of knowledge, societal and other accomplishments ( Ginsberg K. , 2001 ) . A Harmonizing to childish kineticss by Lewin, drama takes topographic point as a consequence of the kid s cognitive life infinite which is unstructured thereby doing failure to distinguish existent and unreal.A Therefore, in Lewin s theory, the kid alterations into a behaviour of playful unreality in which things can be changed and are arbitrary ( singer et al. , 2006 ) . A Buytendijk devised another current theory of drama in which he suggested that the kid plays because he is a kid and because his cognitive kineticss do non let for any other manner of acting ( Smith D, 1995 ) therefore it expresses uncoordinated attack to the environment that the kid develops. A The Cathartic Theory ( Freud 1908 ) , perceives play as stand foring an effort to partially fulfill thrusts or work out struggles where the agencies for making so lacks in the kid therefore a kid has temporarily worked through a thrust through drama hence impermanent declaration to the thrust. Among the modern and station modern theories is besides the Psychoanalytic Theory by Buhler ( 1930 ) and Anna Freud ( 1937 ) . They suggested that drama in kids does non merely stand for wish-fulfilling efforts but besides attempts to get by with anxiousness arousing state of affairss which may overpower the kid therefore harmonizing to Freud and Buhler, drama in kids is both defensive and adaptative to cover with anxiousness ( Singer et al. , 2006 ) . Other current theories are Piagets cognitive theory which has been explained in the earlier phases of this paper. Play does non merely advance normal kid development, but besides helps them cover with experiences bing in the environment. Children who lack verbal ego look are able to joint their feeling and issues through drama ( Haworth, 1964 ) . Play acts as a agency of assisting kids trade with emotional and behavioural issues. In therapy for illustration, plaything and drama stuffs are provided to inform the kid that that infinite and clip is different from all others and that the kid should experience free to be to the full themselves ( James et al ) ) . The kid so plays out concerns and issues, which may be excessively hideous or anxiousness bring forthing to straight face them in the presence of anybody who can assist them to experience heard and understood. Symbolic representations through drama activities with dolls and marionettes give kids emotional distance from emotionally attached experiences, ideas and feelings ( Coolhan K. et al. , 2000 ) . Play is besides used to suppress fright in kids and therefore gaiety in kids dispels depression and emphasis ( Coolhan K. et al. , 2000 ) . Therefore leting a kid to play hide-and-seek in a darkened room can assist in suppressing fright of the dark. Furthermore, dramatic drama with hospital-related playthings can assist to significantly cut down hospital-specific frights. At the same clip, Fantasy drama helps a kid to travel from a passive to an active function for illustration when a kid engages in role-playing giving an injection to a doll patient. Fantasy drama in kids besides fosters the look of several defence mechanisms like projection, supplanting, repeat, and designation ( James et al ) . In every bit much as Play contributes to the cognitive, societal, emotional and mental wellbeing of kids, free clip for kids to prosecute in playing has been greatly reduced by technological development which has brought factors such as hurried life style, alterations in household construction, and increased attending to faculty members and enrichment ( Hurtwitz S. , 2002 ) . Childs who are under forced labor and development are non able to acquire clip and freedom to play. In the current universe, there are issues like war and vicinity force in which instance kids are non able to play due insecurity. Children from poorness stricken places have no resources that facilitate safe playing. However, even those kids from good off households with equal resources may non be profiting from drama due to an progressively hurried and pressured life style that prevent them from protected self-driven drama ( Almon et al. , 2004 ) . Many kids due to engineering are presently acquiring less clip for free exploratory drama because they are hurried to accommodate into big functions and their hereafter functions at immature stamp ages ( James et al ) . Parents are misled with carefully marketed messages that theoretical account parents expose their kids to every chance available to progress hence they go on purchasing many enrichment tools to guarantee their kids take portion in many activities alternatively of free exploratory drama. Some kids may be given specialised books and toys meant to excite them to develop adequately while others are provided with gyms and enrichment plans after school ( Ginsberg K. , 2007 ) . Many of these tools and plans are available and extremely advertised to parents who believed they are necessary for good development of their kids. Therefore in many occasions, much of the clip is spent forming for particular events or taking kids to those events which besides deplete the household s fiscal resources. Free self-driven drama which is of import to kids is replaced by extremely packed adult-supervised or adult-driven activities, and this limits creativeness in kids ( vocalist et al. , 2006 ) . In add-on, this hurried lifestyle brings emphasis and anxiousness related upsets like depression for some kids. Increased force per unit area to execute good in faculty members perchance manifests in school turning away and bodily symptoms. The decrease in drama may besides be due to inactive amusement via telecasting or computer/video games. In contrast to the wellness benefits of active, originative drama and the known developmental benefits organized activities, there is ample grounds that this inactive amusement is non healthy and has harmful effects ( Smith D. , 1995 ) . In other instances, kids who are exposed to pictures and computing machine plans at an early age get addicted to TVs, Computers ( laptops ) where they engage in computing machine games or chew the fating via cyberspace and other staffs most of the clip, and for such kids, their creativeness and motor accomplishments is normally low ( Coolhan K. et Al, 2000 ) . It has been established that increased attending on faculty members and other enrichment activities by kids plus the household due to the effects of engineering and modernism has replaced kids s drama. After school kids seldom get clip to play. Alternatively they are forced to sit at the tabular array and finish their prep given in school. At the same clip, their parents put on them force per unit area to analyze extensively burying to save any small clip for drama ( Ginsberg K. , 2001 ) . In add-on, schoolchildren are allocated less free clip and fewer physical mercantile establishments at school ; for illustration in the U.S.A, many school territories respond to the No Child Left Behind Act of 200137 by cut downing clip committed to recess, the originative humanistic disciplines, and even physical instruction in an attempt to concentrate on reading and mathematics. Due to engineering, the art of edifice besides does non prefer drama in kids and this tendency affects the societal and emotional development of kids. Furthermore, many after-school kid attention plans prefer an extension of faculty members and prep completion over organized and free playas good every bit physical activity. In decision, play by and large affects the ability to hive away new information in kids since their cognitive capacity is developed by a important alteration in activity. A alteration in activity does non intend in academic direction, category subject or formal structured physical instruction category but purely free-play deferral ( Coolhan K.et al. , 2000 ) . Less clip for drama in schools may be lending to discordant academic abilities between male childs and misss. This is because schools with sedentary acquisition manners have become a hard topographic point for male childs to last successfully ( Almon J. , 2004 ) .

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Veterans Health Affairs Handbook Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Veterans Health Affairs Handbook - Essay Example As a medical student, I am aware of the growing demand for better health care in our country. This calls for more physicians and nurses as well as coordination of the two groups in offering health care, which is now prone to health care workforce problems. As such, I disregard the draft VHA Nursing Handbook that seeks to eliminate physician-led, team-based care within the VHA system since this will also prevent local facilities from providing such services thus jeopardizing primary health care. Moreover, I differ with medical practitioners who advocate for the independent use of nurses instead of physicians to address the health care workforce shortages since this will put the lives of most patients at a greater risk. Indeed, I think the best way to address these problems is to hire more staff and enhance integration and teamwork among all healthcare providers with a view of offering affordable and effective health care. Nevertheless, the draft VHA Nursing Handbook negates this appro ach as it fosters fragmentation in this sector.  Therefore, I think we should revise the draft VHA Nursing Handbook to reflect a team-based approach that will allow all parties in health care delivery to work together, share decisions and information to enhance healthcare delivery. Indeed, by enhancing integration and teamwork between VHA and physicians and APRNs, this draft would address fundamental challenges in health delivery. Furthermore, the draft should seek to offer longer-term solutions in the healthcare workforce instead of the questionable short-term measures it offers now. With these recommendations, I bet a revision of the draft VHA Nursing Handbook would suit the current healthcare needs.  

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Last Day at School Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Last Day at School - Essay Example The researcher states that it is impossible to believe that he needs to leave the high school where he met so many wonderful people and friends. The researcher knows he has become close with my fellow students and this bond is not easy to forget. It is really difficult to assume what life would have been without these happy high school years. These days the author was sometimes joyful and sometimes nervous and also there were days of sorrow. All these emotions took a ride through his years in high school. And the day when the author had to bid goodbye to his friends, tears rolled out of his eyes. The researcher never realized that he loves his school so much. It has given him valuable experience and knowledge and number of friends that he can never forget. It was a memorable day when the author was busy compiling his graduation book with his friends and fellow students. All of them with a mixed feeling of sorrow and anxiety in their mind spend the last days of school in unity. The re searcher remembers the times when he was busy compiling the graduation book, the one with all the memories, fun photos and writing jotted down in it. The graduation book is a treasure for the author when he looks into the book he finds his friends face glaring at him which give him utter happiness. The day when the author was compiling it, he requested his best friend to put his picture on the front page and he stuck a photo in which both of them were holding hands in a sportive manner. He wrote words which displayed his feeling and love for the author. The researcher could not look into his eyes as he could see the tears ready to fall out of his eyes.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

You choose Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 5

You choose - Essay Example There were a small group of us that decided that we were going to work together to help time go faster and sometimes it is far easier to pick up trash when someone else in the group accidentally missed it. In order to do this activity, we thought about contacting a highway department to let them know that we were going to do it but instead, we just decided to go ahead and do it. We gathered numerous trash bags, rubber gloves and manpower to get together to pick up the trash beside the roadways and in the park. Also when working on the roadside, we decided we better wear reflectors for safety. We worked hard for a few hours to pick up all trash alongside the road and then when we got done picking it up, we then separated it out the best we could so that we could recycle some of the bottles, cans and other recyclables. When at the parks, we also worked to clean out any trash barrels which had not been emptied in a while and then walked the grounds to make sure there definitely was not any glass in the playground area or any other garbage. We then gathered up all of our trash bags that we had filled and went back to pick up some alongside the road that we had to leave that were full and we could not carry with us, put them in the back of a truck and tried to separate out what could be recycled and then dropped those off at the recycling center and then put the rest in a dumpster. This activity basically helped me to understand that everyone has a responsibility to keep the environment clean. It only takes a few seconds for someone to throw out a can or a bottle but it can take hours for someone to come along and pick up after someone else. It is not fun but it is rewarding to know that parks and roads are not cluttered and junky. It makes the space look nice and it is also safer for children or even elderly who might be walking and trip and fall on bottles or cans. Ethically, no

Friday, November 15, 2019

Silver Lining in the Sky A Story

Silver Lining in the Sky A Story Silver Lining in the Sky We often come to here the proverb that life is not bed of roses. It may seem the old and overused statement, but, it really is true. We often judge happiness pleasure in lives by economic prosperity, which does not holds true for all the cases. People may have a lot of money, but, are still unhappy and have forlorn because they feel that money cannot buy everything for them. and in case of lack of prosperity, the life itself became difficult because a person fails to fulfill his dreams and cannot buy or get according to his wishes. People may have experiences that may change affect their whole life and transform them to a completely different one. Such experiences can either make a person a sad loser or transform him to a successful and wise person, these results are dependent on the personality of the person and how he sees his situation o r world. I have listened about and observed a person who with the power of optimism and hopefulness changed his miserable and depressed life into the a shining example for everyone. This narrative is about one of the sons of our maid Zainab, who used to work in our since our childhood. I have not seen anyone so honest and dedicated in her life, as Zainab. When I was toddler, she was a middle aged woman and had two sons and one daughter. With the time she spent I our home and the long time for which she worked, she was considered the most entrusted servant of our house and we use to leave our house in her supervision alone and go for hours, but, never found anything misplaced or stolen. The long detail about Zainab is actually related to her son also. My mom told me that Zainab was not always the same poor and unfortunate women. She herself belonged to an uneducated and mediocre family, but, her husband was a really rich man and against the Arabic traditions, he married Zainab without consultation from his family, that’s why his family stayed away from him forever. Her husband used to work as the successful broker in stock exchange, but, unluckily, he invested in a unsuccessful company hoping that later it will bring more money to him, but his plan failed and he lost all money. This happened after eight years of his marriage with Zainab. A few weeks after that the family was travelling and they got into accident, her husband died on spot her elder son Khalid apparently bruised his legs only. The death of Khalid’s mother came as real loss for the family, with no sources of income and lack of education, unfortunately Zainab had to go to peoples home and work as maid. She used to work her in several homes to feed them. Khalid was seven, when his mother started working as maid. Initially he got really depressed, when he had to see his mother sweeping the floors of others because he himself led the life, where people used to do work for them. Khalid became really quiet after the death of his father and also really sensitive. Being the eldest he realized that he has to take care of his siblings, but, still the difference in lifestyle and daily routine put a lot of pressure on the nerves of the child. He was always a happy and confident child, but, he started having nightmares and never wanted to leave his mother’s side. He used to wonder why all this happened to him and his family. It was the time he started getting lazy and also started complaining about pain in his legs. Initially everyone felt that he could not adjust in accordance with the present circumstances. His complaining did not stop and with the passage of time deformation in his legs were observed. Later his mother took him to doctor. After looking at his condition, the dr. inquired, whether Khalid was vaccinated for polio, the mother denied any such knowledge. After tests, it was revealed that Khalid had polio and had become paralyzed for his life. It was another shock for the family, but, his strong hearted mother always consoled him and taught his to see silver lining in the sky. With the passage of time Khalid learned that life without hope s useless. But, he was still young boy at that time. Lives without father and also as a paralyzed person seem to be really difficult for him. The real shock came after world. When his father lost his fortune, most of their acquaintances left them on their ow n, like they had contact ad acquaintances with them only because of their fortune. Even their family friends left them. He used to wonder, why people stopped meeting them and coming to their house. He didn’t realize anything until his father died and they were left alone in the world and without any financial aid. Soon after his mother started working as the maid for people, the remaining people stopped their contact and even forbade their children to play with them. They also have to shift in a smaller place, which was in a slum. Their new friends and acquaintances were the people of that slum. When he got polio, even his new friends started teasing him for his present condition and used to call him by the names of handicap, disfigured and game legged. Hearing such words and being called by his fellows was a real pain for him. He was also fond of soccer before his disability; the pain that he cannot play soccer for ever brought his more pain in the heart. The main issue was that due to lack of finances, he did not have clutches or wheelchair. It means that he was totally dependent on the other for his movements and the daily routine. Most pain came from the fact that, in the slums people were illiterate and had no knowledge of disease polio. Most of the people thought that it was an infectiou s disease and told their children not to visit Khalid again. How much pain the little boy might have suffered after losing fortune, father and later his friends, who were the only hope at that difficult time? In that time of despair, his mother used to tell him that how they were facing difficulties because she was not educated and did not have awareness about the necessity and essentiality of vaccination. He learned from his mother that a person can bring positive change in his life by studying because it is only education that can bring prosperity and happiness in their lives. He started taking interest in studies, with the help of one of his employers, Zainab sent her son to a public school. Initially the little boy also got rejected from most of his fellow students, but, his hope and vision of future did not let him go astray. Whenever he felt dejected, his mother was always there to console him. In spite of behavior of his fellow students, he continued to work hard and gave proper attention to his studies. He never felt ashamed that he as to ask a question again and again because he did not get that first time. His attitude helped him to clear his concepts, which later helped him in increase in his knowledge. At the end of that academic year, Khalid got second position in his class. It was after that, he felt that behavior of his fellow students started changing with him. He was listened to and was respected by his fellow students. This made him realize that how education can help him to earn respect. But, still that was not the end of his misfortunes, the time in which he was supposed to take admission in high school, his youngest sister got really ill and the money that had been set aside for his admission in high school was spent on his sister’s treatment. His sister was playing when she tripped while running and a piece of metal entered her arm near wrist. That was a really deep cut and she lost a lot of blood. He used to love his youngest sister a lot and could not see her in such pain. He started thinking that due to lack of money he could not get admission in high school and his beloved sister could not get better treatment. They had to take their sister out of hospital early because they did not have enough money. In her home her stitches got infected, but, they could not take her to hospital. Later the infection spread in her whole arm and they had to cut it, in order to save rest of her body. This was another shock for Khalid, as he felt really helpless because he could not help his sister. He even thought of leaving further education, but, again the hope that his education can help them to survive in this world helped him to continue struggling. Khalid was really bright student and watching this, my father gave money for his admission in highs school. In high school, he worked even harder and passed with distinction. This gave him opportunity to take admission in college with scholarship. He got admission in the college with scholar ship and chose accounting as the major. In spite of being the difficult subject, his hard work helped him to make it easier for him. This path was also not easy for him. Here also, he had to bear the typical attitude of the people towards handicapped. Some totally rejected him and some gave more than necessary attention to him. He always wanted to be treated as normal people, but, his wish was never fulfilled. He showed even better result here and later on scholarship got admission in Chartered Accountancy course. The path was although difficult for him, but was not possible to achieve. He believed that his hard work could help him to achieve whatever he wanted. But, in meantime, his mother got ill and they lost their source of finances temporarily. In order to feed his family and get money for her treatment, he had to take tuitions. But, the expensive were more and the tuitions that he used to give students could not get him enough money. Because of this pressure, he had to leave studies temporarily. He requested for his semester to be frozen and took a minor job at an office. This job along with the tuitions enabled him to give proper treatment to his mother. After the period of six months his mother got recovered and went on her previous job. He continued his studies, but, still gave tuitions because it helped his sibling to get a slightly better living. His efforts and hard work gave his fruits when he passed Chartered Accountancy exam with distinction. His excellent educational record and personal traits like perseverance and hard work helped him to get job in on of the top accountancy firms of the country. He got two promotions in the time of five years and now he is working as a successful professional and his  family is leading really good life with better lifestyle. Their family still visits us occasionally and the company and the life of Khalid taught me that nothing is difficult in life. We may face difficulties and misfortunes, but, instead of giving importance to them, we should keep our focus on the silver lining in the sky. Khalid once said that his disability proved to be an actual opportunity in disguise. Because before this disability, he was not serious and determined about doing anything good with his life, later, with the encouragement of his mother he learned the importance of education and hope. He believes that life without hope is nothing. After watching him and listening about his journey, I came to realize that the difficulties in life cannot stop a person from doing anything good because when there is hope and will there is always a promise of better future.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

The Life Of Sylvia Plath :: essays research papers fc

The Life of Sylvia Plath Sylvia Plath's life, like her manic depression, constantly jumped between Heaven and Hell. Her seemingly perfect exterior hid a turbulent and deeply troubled spirit. A closer look at her childhood and personal experiences removes some element of mystery from her writings. One central character to Sylvia Plath's poems is her father, Professor Otto Emile Plath. Otto Plath was diabetic and refused to stay away from foods restricted by his doctor. As a result , he developed a sore on his left foot. Professor Plath ignored the sore, and eventually the foot was overcome with gangrene. The foot and then the entire left leg were amputated in an effort to save his life, but he died in November of 1940, when Sylvia was just eight years old. The fact that her father could have prevented his death left Sylvia Plath with a feeling of deliberate betrayal. Instead of reaching out to other people for comfort, she isolated herself with writing as her only expressive outlet, and remarkably had a poem published when she was only eight. Plath continued prolific writing through high school and won a scholarship to Smith College in 1950 where she met her friend Anne Sexton. Sexton often joined Plath for martinis at the Ritz where they shared poetry and intellectualized discussions about death. Although they were friends, there was also an element of competition between Sexton and Plath. Sylvia Plath's poem " Daddy" was possibly a response to Anne Sexton's "My Friend, My Friend." It was as if Plath was commenting that her writing skills were just a bit better than Sexton's. Sexton frequently would express to Robert Lowell in his poetry class her dissatisfaction with Plath's writing. She said that Plath "dodges the point in her poetry and hadn't yet found the form that belonged to her." The competitive nature of their relationship continued to the very end. To all appearences, Plath appeared normal, her social life similar to other middle class coeds.Many were attracted to Plath's brilliant mind, but few were aware of the inner torment that drove her to write, alienating her from the rest of society. Madamoiselle magazine awarded Plath a position as guest editor the summer following her junior year at Smith. Friends and family were stunned at her suicide attempt when she returned to college, most believing she had suffered a nervous breakdown due to the stress at the magazine. Her treatment was considered the best the medical world could offer and included electro-shock and psychotherapies. Plath tells her side of the story in the poem Lady Lazarus where she likens her experience to a victim of the Holocaust.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Business Plan D&D Beauty Salon Essay

D&D (Dreams and Desires) Customize Beauty Salon is a unique salon of its kind. It tends to provide all barberry and cosmetology services under one roof in a unique way. What makes D&D so unique is its distinguish software. The software allows the client to see, realize and evaluate him/herself in a real time. It takes picture of the customer and instantly allows them to perform different functions, such as; try different hairstyles, change hair color, apply different types of facial hairstyle and for girls/women it allows them to apply wide range of makeup as well. The purpose behind such a unique idea is to fully satisfy the hidden needs and wants of the people which usually they are unaware of. Once they have the opportunity to realize and evaluate themselves there is more chance that the customer will leave as a happy customer. So using the same phenomenon we are going into the market with the different slogan â€Å"_No One Leaves unhappy_†. As the work of a beauty salon does not ends up here, it requires professional and well experienced staff to provide customers the services exactly what they perceive in their mind and what the software had shown them. For that we are striving to hire two foreign qualified professionals initially. Along with their regular duties they will also train our local beauticians/hairdressers. Our distinctive D&D software will act as a competitive advantage for us, through which we are going to compete with the well established big giants in the beauty clinic industry. As no one in the industry is currently serving the customers with this mind set so it’s a kind of gap we have identified and we have prepared a strong strategy to fulfill these hidden needs and wants of the customers in the market. The trend has shown that there is a boom going on in the beauty clinic industry, new salons are opening consistently and the current established brands are generating massive profits, so it’s a very good time for us to enter into the market with our unique selling proposition. To achieve our objectives we are seeking additional loan financing. Our capital structure will be 50% equity based and 50% external financing. Our 50% equity will be equally distribute among five owners of the company, however we will take a loan on 19% interest rate from UBL to fulfill our external financing requirement. The initial capital that is required to start our salon is Rs.4079500 hopefully by the end of year _ we  will reach our break even. Our projected Income Statement shows that by the end of year 3 we will start earning substantial profits. Overall keeping in mind the industry and market attractiveness we are quite confident that future for D&D Beauty Salon looks quite bright. COMPANY DESCRIPTION COMPANY INTRODUCTION Dream and Desire is a unique kind of beauty salon. It is one of the most innovative beauty salon which is going to revolutionize the entire barberry and cosmetology segment. This is the era of technology and Dream and Desire provides customers with a blend of classic service with updated technology. At Dream and Desire we provide services to both males and females. Services include hair cutting, facial services; make up, waxing and a lot more services that are provided at any other beauty salon. We provide services for people from all genders and age. The innovation brought in by Dream and Desire is the addition of technology in the service. At Dream & Desire customers can have a look at their new looks before they actually get it. Customers can choose from different hair styles and cosmetology and then the specifically trained barbers and beautician at Dream and Desire would provide the customer with the required services. COMPANY HISTORY Dream and Desire is a new company in the industry. It does not have a history but it will surely create history by revolutionizing the barberry and cosmetology industry by introducing technology in the industry. In the past companies only used to cut hair and provide cosmetology services to customers on the basis of what customer told them about what the customers requires or how he wants to look but now with the most innovative beauty salon Dream and Desire customers can actually see how they would look in different hair styles and cosmetic before even getting the service performed on themselves. Where as in the past customers only used to get their hair  cut and they could only see their new look after they used to get the service performed on them. Before Dream & Desire, all beauty salon, small and big barber shops and salons all used to just provide services without the much needed, dreamt and desired technology. MISSION STATEMENT _Our mission is to build the most innovative beauty salon in the industry. We at dream & desire are passionately committed at providing our customers with the most innovative barberry and cosmetology service that they can ever experience._ VISION STATEMENT _Our vision is to revolutionize the barberry and cosmetology industry by making customers happy and satisfied through our D&D Software Beauty Services._ SERVICE DESCRIPTION Dream and Desire provides all the services that any other beauty salon provides but the competitive edge that we have over other salons is the addition of technology. We can actually show the client how he would look after getting the service before even providing him services. At dream and desire we provide services and fulfill appearance desires of customers. Through our D&D software we can provide our customers with their pictures of what they would look like with different hair styles and cosmetics. Our services include Hair Cutting ,hair styling , hair dyeing , hair streaking, threading ,bleaching, waxing, make up , bridal make ups for both grooms and brides, manicure ,pedicure ,consultation, face massage and all the other services that you find on any other beauty salon but with an assurity of how you would look after the service is provided to you. We  provide an additional service of D&D software but at a very reasonable price as compared to other salons .This shows that we at Dream and Desire really want the customers to look as they have always dreamt and desired. We use branded products for providing our services whether its bridal make up, party make up, hair streaking and dyeing and all the other services provided at our beauty salon are provided by branded products whether its scrubs, moisturizers , toners, hair color, wax, creams, hair masks, nail polishes ,gel and every other product used by our beauticians is branded. CURRENT STATUS Our business is currently in the building stage. A full-fledged business plan has been made for Dream & Desire but it’s not yet been implemented practically. LEGAL STATUS AND OWNERSHIP Our business is still in the building stage. We have a full-fledged business plan but we are still in the process of buying patents, copyrights and license for our business â€Å"Dream & Desire†. Dream & Desire is a partnership venture which is owned by 5 partners with each one having 20% ownership rights. KEY PARTNERSHIPS (IF ANY) Currently we do not have as such any partnership but in near future we are hoping to build some of them with the people in the same or different industries. Once we see the early growth of the company we will definitely going to look for companies like different garment stores and other fashion related segments to build partnerships with them which will be sustained for longer run. We will provide them the facility of our D&D software which will enhance the level of their current services. Similarly in our salon we will  promote their brand and in return we will ask them to promote D&D. So will build long term sustainable relationship with other companies once we are ready for the boom. INDUSTRY ANALYSIS INDUSTRY SIZE AND GROWTH The beauty salon industry is mainly composed of small, independently owned salons. An average salon offers services such as haircutting, styling, coloring, shampooing and permanents. Other salons have expanded their businesses to offer services such as nail care, facials, makeup application, waxing, massage, tanning and other beauty treatments. Our services belong to the Beauty Clinics Industry. When we look at the industry we can see that there are a lot of hair salons and barber shops in Pakistan. In the past few years Pakistani people have become very beauty conscious especially the youth of Pakistan because of which the number of Hair and Beauty Salons in Pakistan have increased significantly. This industry caters one of the most common needs of all the people in the world. On daily basis about 15 to 20 people on an average visit the male beauty salon whereas about 20 to 25 females visit beauty parlor. The industry is very crowded and it’s still growing. Both the number of beauty salons and the number of beauty conscious people are increasing in Pakistan. There are uncountable beauty salons in Pakistan but none of them provide an innovative service as we do so the industry that our services belong to is very attractive and its attractiveness is increasing with time. People were beauty conscious in the past too but now the number has drastically increased and more and more beauty salon have been opened especially a large number for men so the industry is quiet new. Even though there were barbers in the early eras but beauty salons in Pakistan a comparatively newer industry. Major players in the Beauty Clinics are Depilex, Nabila, however in Lahore some other competitors are, New Look, Alle’Nora, Samia’s, Muneeba, Elysium. There is no administrative or regulatory body to govern the practices of this industry so there is no statistical data available regarding the exact number of players in the market. CURRENT INDUSTRY STRUCTURE The number of beauty clinics in Pakistan has increased at a fast pace over the last few years. The size of this sector of service industry is still growing. Due to very low amount of investment that is required to start beauty parlors, the number of such establishments has cropped up in houses all over the country. In Lahore, more professional and large clinics have been set up in commercial areas like M. M. AlamRoad, Defence, and Main Boulevard Gulberg. Professional experts are currently operating approximately 15 large beauty clinics in Lahore. The beauty industry today encompasses far more than cosmetics and skin care products, though they are still a significant portion of the sector. A wide range of services and products are available to help us put our best face forward, and the beauty industry now also encompasses hair styling and hair removal, nail and tanning salons, massage parlors, shower and shaving products, perfumes, colognes and more. Many people now treat their beauty ritual as an escape from the hustle of the information age, whether it’s a few minutes spoiling oneself with a high-end product or a full day at a luxury spa. Comprised of a diverse yet interrelated set of business lines, the beauty industry helps us look and smell our best. Before we leave the house each day, we have likely undergone our personalized beautification ritual. Included in this ritual are the daily shower and shave, the weekly nail trim, and the monthly haircut. And increasingly we are taking a more holistic view of our health, and our beautification ritual may now include a periodic massage and trip to the spa. But our concern with our appearance is hardly anything new; indeed the beauty industry has been expanding and growing for all of recorded history. For the interested entrepreneur this continuing growth and evolution offers a diverse menu of opportunity. KEY SUCCESS FACTORS Quality and skilled employees familiar with energy work and oriented to a soothing spiritual disposition. Use very good quality beauty products. Preferably imported and branded. The atmosphere of the clinic has to be according to the taste of targeted customers. The charges for different services should be set keeping in mind the price charged bythe competition. Establish trust within the community that each customer’s needs will be taken care of during every visit. Easily accessible location. Effective advertising. Ensure good quality of service at all times, and be consistent. NATURE OF PARTICIPANTS Industry participants are those whose services include salon. Salon services concern hair styling,haircutting, coloring, shampooing and permanents, nail care, facials, makeup application, waxing and other beauty treatment. INDUSTRY TREND The salon business is notoriously competitive and has really transformed itself in recent years. Previously, salons paid little attention to their decor and focused mainly on keeping it attractive and neat with good basic hairdressing furniture. Today, many of the leading salons are investing in proper interior design and product showcasing to build their retail income streams alongside their hairdressing and beauty services. Hair is an essential part of look gorgeous and one should pay extra attention to it to steal the show. In Pakistan the hair trends in (2012) there’s an absolute feast of looks. There are different hair trend like The Bob, Long and Wavy, Classy Ponytails, Straight Traces. MARKET ANALYSIS AND MARKETING PLAN: Effective marketing campaign is necessary to invite clients for a newly established beauty salon. For launching an effective marketing campaign we need to find some the following things. Market segmentation and Target Market Buyer behavior Competitor analysis MARKET SEGMENTATION Segmentation is a paramount to any businesses success. Identify the marketing segment for the product and explains why this segment was selected. DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION Demographic segmentation involves dividing the market on the basis of statistical differences in personal characteristics, such as age, gender, race, income, life stage, occupation, and education level. D&D Salon, for example, segment on the basis of age groups such as teenagers, young adults, and mature adults. D&D Beauty Salon will be targeting three dissimilar groups of clients. The salon will work hard to particularly appeal to each of these groups. D&D Beauty Salon will target Women, Men, and Children. Men will characteristically create up to 75% of the clientele. Men have shorter hair and require a faster, simpler job. D&D Salon will gear toward women who cannot meet the expense of an upscale  salon. There is not often a dissimilarity in quality of an upscale salon comparative to a family hair salon other than a upscale salon will tend to pamper you more, only accepts appointments, and the salon itself is generally a bit plusher. Someone who is financially responsible as opposed to someone who likes lavishness will support a family style salon. Young mothers and children will also be welcome in our salon. Typically, children are disreputably complicated when it comes to getting haircuts. D&D Salon will be a laid-back environment where children can have fun while they are waiting and we will work with parents to compose children while haircuts are performed. Where you advertise is as important keeping several factors in mind when looking for the client. Our segments is the people who visits beauty and hair saloons irrespective of their age and gender Take a good look at your business you should always know where you should advertise and this works to your advantage if your goal is to get customers out of what would normally be your target group. The social media is always a great place to advertise so as another place, often overlooked, is high school and college and university newspapers, fashion magazines. Expected customers are following 60% male 25% females 15% young children with mother PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION VALS (â€Å"Values, Attitudes and Lifestyles†) is a proprietary research methodology used for psychographic market segmentation. Market segmentation is designed to guide companies in tailoring their products and services to appeal to the people most likely to purchase them. According to VALS our customers will be Innovators: These consumers are on the leading edge of change, have the highest incomes, and such high self-esteem and abundant resources that they can indulge in any or all self-orientations. They are located above the rectangle. Image is important to them as an expression of taste, independence and character. Their consumer choices are directed toward the â€Å"finer things in life.† Experiencers: These consumers are the high-resource group of those who are motivated by self-expression. They are the youngest of all the segments, with a median age of 25. They have a lot of energy, which they pour into physical exercise and social activities. They are eager consumers, spending heavily on clothing, fast-foods, fashion, music, and other youthful favorites, with particular emphasis on new products and services. GEOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION Geographic segmentation involves dividing the market on the basis of where people live. Divisions may be in terms of neighborhoods, cities, counties, states, regions, or even countries. Considerations related to geographic grouping may include the makeup of the areas, that is, urban, suburban, or rural; size of the area; climate; or population. For example, D&D salon will focus on identifying potential user segments in areas where there are potential customers It is based on variables such as customer concentration and macro-economic factors; we will be targeting the residents of Gulberg, GOR, shadman, defense, model town, faisal town. As these areas are near to the place where we will be operating and people residing in these can afford these services PRODUCT-BENEFIT Segmentation is based on the perceived value or advantage consumers receive  from a good or service over alternatives. Our customers will be satisfied because of our uniqueness Thus; markets can be divided in terms of the quality, performance, image, service, special features, or other benefits we will provide to our customers. BUYER BEHAVIOR To design our salon around the emotional buying patterns of the consumer, We have to go beyond simple design. We must incorporate the vision of environmental psychology. We have to match the best-proven practices of successful service providers and marketers inside the beauty industry. The salon of today and of the future, must combine elements of dependable science, blended with wishful thinking to create an alluring cocktail of reality and desirable fantasy. The fundamental principle of market research is that you can ask people questions and what they tell you will be the truth. In fact, it turns out that the opposite is far closer to the truth.. When the mind considers the future, it does so with idealism that is both optimistic and simultaneously devoid of any objective assessment of the past. There is a way to obtain a deeper understanding of consumers and make better-informed decisions. Humans have virtually lost the ability to appreciate the present, so wrapped up are we in dwelling on the past and wondering about the future. UNDERSTANDING THE CONSCIOUS MIND The unconscious mind is the real driver of consumer behavior. Understanding consumers is largely a matter of understanding how the consumer’s mind operates. The saying ‘first impression’ applies to more than just the visual when a consumer enters a salon. It is also important in verbal communication with a consumer. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES Humans like animals, interact and respond to their environment far more than we are aware of at a conscious level. If we want to change people’s behavior, the first thing we can do is change the environment. Changing the environment is uniquely powerful in changing behavior. There is no greater single influence. If we want to know why someone does or doesn’t buy, we have to understand how the environment shapes behavior. To maximize sales or impact of communication, the environment has to be right. It is not a revelation to learn that music and lighting can affect our mood and as a result, our behavior, the extent to which both can cause people to spend more is surprising. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN + PERSONAL CONSUMER EXPERIENCE = SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE COMPETITOR ANALYSIS Knowing Your Enemy is key and could help traffic into your salon. Knowing your competition is as important as anything else you will ever do in business. You need to learn who their customers are, how they work as a salon, number of employees they have on hand, what their range of services and products are and where and how they advertise. This way we will be able to know how to better serve your clients and run your business. Major competitors are the following Diplex Sobia’s New looks Alenora Tony and Guy Nabeela STRATEGY AND IMPLEMENTATION Skill at what we do, good customer service, and creating a pleasant environment for our customers will be important to implementing our business plan. COMPETITIVE EDGE We are unique from others, our customized style of beauty and our software’s is unique of its own kind there is no other such saloon operating in Pakistan D&D wants to set itself apart from other beauty salons that may offer only one or two types of services. Having come from such a salon, they desire all of the services that we are proposing. Although the focus of D&D is hair services, we do wish to offer our clients the convenience of these other services in one location. There are a number of salons. But they are mainly in the very high income parts of our city and surrounding areas. We do not intend to compete with these we wish to offer a middle ground for those clients who can’t quite afford those high-end luxury salons. Our business atmosphere will be a relaxing one where clients can kick back and be pampered. Soft drinks will be offered to clients as they enter for service. Televisions will be located in the waiting and hair-drying area area MARKETING STRATEGY Our marketing strategy is a simple one: satisfied clients are our best marketing tool. When a client leaves our salon with a new look, he or she is broadcasting our name and quality to the public. Most of our clients will be referrals from existing clients. No major advertising campaigns are expected. Our research has shown that word of mouth is the best advertising for this type of business. We will, however, run specials throughout the week. We will also ask clients for referrals, and reward them with discounted or free services depending on the number of clients they bring. We will also offer discounts to the new clients who have been referred. A client would simply refer new clients to us, and we will place a card in a box for each client he or she brings. The more they bring, the more chances they have of winning the free services Our marketing strategy is the key to our success: Emphasize our name and unique services through advertising. Focus on the convenience of our location. Build community relationships through unique and quality service, friendly and caring atmosphere, and establishing absolute dependability of our services. PROMOTION STRATEGY _ADVERTISING_ We will utilize local newspaper, local social and health magazines, local radio, local television, mail-outs to all households within the immediate five mile radius, and mail-outs to all local business within a five-mile radius. Often overlooked, is high school and college and university newspapers, fashion magazines. _INTERNET_ we will have a comprehensive website and on social media such as face book page and twitter. We will also add our salon placed on Google maps. The social media is always a great place to advertise so as another place _ALLIANCES_ this type of advertising will be implemented once we have grown beyond our break-even point. We will also form advertising alliances with  any business with whom we share common business goals. We will also implement mutual perks with our business and restaurant neighbors which will aid in local visibility. Advertising promotions with certain clothing brands such as Stone Age, outfitters, cross roads and in the ladies clothing we will alliance with Rang ja and wardah clothing and in ladies foot wear we will alliance with Heels. POSITIONING STATEMENT We will automatically position ourselves as one of the top customized beauty salons in the greater area. Considering that none of the other competitors will offer the range of services we will, or that their staffs will be trained like ours, and that there are not any beauty salons of our type in our target locations. PRICING STRATEGY Our pricing strategy will not be similar to that of our competitors. We will not charge over, or substantially under, standard prices for our services. We will be implementing a price penetration strategy PRODUCT PROMOTION We will manipulate our prices and offer discounts with services such as haircuts, shampoos and coloring treatments. Offering customers 10 or 25 percent off the purchase of a particular shampoo and conditioner with the purchase of a haircut and shampoo combination can help move merchandise and increase our service sales. Customers can be tempted by the desire to take the salon experience home with them and, with discounted prices on premier products MANAGEMENT TEAM & COMPANY STRUCTURE MANAGEMENT TEAM Dream and Desire has 5 founders who are also going to be the member of the board of directors. They would have the voting power for any decision that has to be made. All the five founders of Dream & Desire are Business Management Students with corporate experience. The founders are also going to act as operational managers who are going to visit the salon according to their shift times. Marketing and Finance Manager are also going to be hired for promotional and financial purposes respectively. Operational Managers are going to lead a team of stylists, beauticians and barbers. There is going to be one assistant operational manager for Male customers and one for female customers. The male assistant operational manager is going to lead a team of a signature stylist ,top stylist and two barbers and the female assistant operational manager is going to lead a team of a signature stylist ,a a top stylist and two beauticians. Operational managers are also going to deal with the activities of the staff. BOARD OF DIRECTORS The founders of Dream and Desire are also going to be the member of board of directors. Dream and Desire has 5 founders and each one would have 20% voting right. 80% of the vote should be in favor for any decision to pass. The board of directors is also going to responsible for HR activities (hiring & Firing). All the 5 members are also going to serve as the operational managers who are going to visit the salon according to their fixed days. BOARD OF ADVISORS Our resource person Mr. Rashid Hussain will assist us in implementing this project so he and some of our other teachers will act as Board of Advisors as well. We will seek help and guidance from them time to time. Other than there is a person, Mr.Nasir who has been successfully running his hair salon, he has helped us a lot in this project and he will further assist us in implementation phase of our project. COMPANY STRUCTURE The company is owned by 5 founders who are equal stock holders of the Dream & Desire. The sister concern of the board of directors is the board of advisors who advise the board on different issues mostly when the board or the owners are facing any problem with the business. The Board of directors perform the activities of HR Department themselves but they directly control three managers below them i.e. Operational manager, financial manager and marketing manager. The operational manager further controls 2 assistant operational managers one for the females and other for the males. Assistant operational managers report to the operation manager where as the operational manager directly reports to the board of directors. The operational manager also controls the duties of the staff (Receptionist, Security guard, clerk and sweeper). The two assistant operational managers further supervise 4 employees each. i.e. Signature Stylist, Top Stylist and two beauticians or barbers on each male and female case.

Friday, November 8, 2019

ethiopia case study essays

ethiopia case study essays Nearly half of Sub Saharan Africa's 45 independent countries encounter frequent serious food crises. Ethiopia, one of the world's larger countries, has long been plagues with the torment of poverty, illiteracy, hunger and disease. Famine, a reduction in everyday food supply, is a widespread problem that can strike in any corner of the developing world. Although sometimes unnoticed, this shortage of food slowly leads to hunger and malnutrition. Famine in Ethiopia is not caused by natural disaster, but instead is a direct result of social, political and economic human forces. "Not only are individuals and families dying from starvation there, but whole communities are forces to endure abnormal social and economic activities in order to ensure food". (5) Due to their lack of development planning in combating these hardships. "Ethiopia is characterized as one of the world's least developed nations". (4.65) This case study summarizes the existence of famine in Ethiopia as it rela ted to its causes, both natural and political, resettlement and relief efforts and the issues involved famine in the future. Existence of Famine - When did it begin? People die, governments fail, economies breakdown, poverty widens and futures become dark. Famine, war, and destruction appear to have always been an integral piece of human history, at last since the beginning of substantial human population growth. Its existence in Ethiopia has led to "millions of death, especially in women and children under the age of 5". (3.50) Although many famines have been recorded in human history. Most have occurred in areas of underlying civil conflict. "The famine in the early 1980's was first discovered in the West in 1984, four weeks after the celebrations for the tenth anniversary of the rule of the military committee in Ethiopia". (5) Political in the West had been in dismay when the Dergue announced the formation of the Workers Party of Ethiop...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Free Essays on Menander

After the Macedonian conquest, Greek comedy moved away from the daring personal and political satire of Aristophanes. Lacking complete political independance, writers of this New Comedy found themselves moving towards safer more mundane subject matter. They found their inspiration in the daily life of Athens. Their characters were drawn from the cooks, merchants, farmers and slaves of the city. According to ancient report, the most gifted of these new writers was Menander. Menander, the child of a distinguished family, wrote more than 100 plays during a career that spanned about thirty-three years. He was known for the delicacy and truthfulness of his characterizations, and his poetic style was often mentioned in the same breath as Homer's. Although he won first prize at only eight festivals, he did much to move comedy towards a more realistic representation of human life. Menander's characters spoke in the contemporary dialect and concerned themselves not with the great myths of the past, but rather with the everyday affairs of the people of Athens. His plots revolved around young boys in love with young girls, parents concerned with the misbehavior of their children, unwanted pregnancies, long-lost relatives, and all sorts of sexual misadventures. His first play, The Self Tormentor, was written at the age of twenty. And he won his first victory with a play entitled Anger in 316 B.C. Menander's plays held a place in the standard literature of western Europe for over 800 years. At some point, however, his manuscripts were lost or destroyed, and what we now know of the poet is based primarily on ancient reports, a few manuscripts which have been recovered in the last hundred years, and adaptations by the Roman playwrights Plautus and Terence. There is only one complete playDyskolos (The Grouch)which was not rediscovered until 1957. A few long fragments have survived as well from such plays as The Arbitration, The Girl from Samos, ... Free Essays on Menander Free Essays on Menander After the Macedonian conquest, Greek comedy moved away from the daring personal and political satire of Aristophanes. Lacking complete political independance, writers of this New Comedy found themselves moving towards safer more mundane subject matter. They found their inspiration in the daily life of Athens. Their characters were drawn from the cooks, merchants, farmers and slaves of the city. According to ancient report, the most gifted of these new writers was Menander. Menander, the child of a distinguished family, wrote more than 100 plays during a career that spanned about thirty-three years. He was known for the delicacy and truthfulness of his characterizations, and his poetic style was often mentioned in the same breath as Homer's. Although he won first prize at only eight festivals, he did much to move comedy towards a more realistic representation of human life. Menander's characters spoke in the contemporary dialect and concerned themselves not with the great myths of the past, but rather with the everyday affairs of the people of Athens. His plots revolved around young boys in love with young girls, parents concerned with the misbehavior of their children, unwanted pregnancies, long-lost relatives, and all sorts of sexual misadventures. His first play, The Self Tormentor, was written at the age of twenty. And he won his first victory with a play entitled Anger in 316 B.C. Menander's plays held a place in the standard literature of western Europe for over 800 years. At some point, however, his manuscripts were lost or destroyed, and what we now know of the poet is based primarily on ancient reports, a few manuscripts which have been recovered in the last hundred years, and adaptations by the Roman playwrights Plautus and Terence. There is only one complete playDyskolos (The Grouch)which was not rediscovered until 1957. A few long fragments have survived as well from such plays as The Arbitration, The Girl from Samos, ...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Schools Need Dress Codes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Schools Need Dress Codes - Essay Example Then why cannot one opt the issue of uniforms in schools. In most of the countries it have been identified that there is no need of uniforms. Students are attending college in casual dress such as Canada. This is unethical, for instance if we are working in a particular organization each individual is asked to do formal dressing. This sense of equal dressing should be created in children’s from the very beginning, starting from schools, were each child is same in the eye of teacher. But one must consider the other perspective also, i.e. the children’s, what they feel when they see the other child in a good dress as compared to themselves. This may create a sense of demotivation in children’s as well as parents. For instance, a child with good financial background will wear luxuries clothes as compared to the child with low income group. This will create a gap in child’s mind and the former will force parents to get good clothes. This will affect income and expenditure pattern of the family. Therefore to control this situation it is imperative to have dress codes in schools to promote equality among children’s (Ann Svensen, 2000). Training Uniforms are required to train the students for future. In some of the jobs, mostly Asian countries employees are required to wear a uniform. If a child is not made to wear uniform in school, then he will not be able to wear that even later in life, because we human being perform in a way and principles learned in schools. Educational institution is the place which makes a child disciplined. Students can be trained by for future if they are required to wear uniforms. Most of the jobs specification requires servile attitude in people and a student wearing a uniform throughout his academic life is accustomed of having a servile attitude, which will help the child in future. In contrast, children are who are made to wear casual dresses in schools lack this form of attitude which is a main drawba ck. So, it can be said that uniforms in schools can lead to future success of children’s (Alleyene Sylvan, 2009). Equity This focuses on the fact that there exists a problem of rich and poor children’s due to the lack of uniforms in school. This factor is very important in a child’s life. If it is avoided, may ruin the entire life of children. This statement verifies the utmost importance of uniforms in schools. The equity arguments are mainly made by state schools who are more concerned for the future development of children’s. Presently, many private schools in Asia are focusing on this equity theory. School uniforms make students look alike and reduce the differences among them. Children’s mainly judge themselves from their physical appearances i.e. their clothes (David L Brunsma, 2004). Conflict Lack of uniforms may lead to conflict. As discussed earlier children’s judge themselves on the basis of their clothing, if they feel something i s less, more demands are made to the parents. In most cases, parent can’t afford to make their children wear luxuries clothes. This creates a sense of demotivation in a child. One gets frustrated. In result, there exist conflicts among children’s studying in same classes. It creates a sense of hatred among them. This can lead to increase in fights and democracy in an educational institution. It will not only harm children’s but as well as the school itself. Therefore, in order to solve these conflicts wearing uniforms should be

Friday, November 1, 2019

Technical report on hydrogen experiment Assignment Essay

Technical report on hydrogen experiment Assignment - Essay Example figures Figure 1 preparation of the electrolyzer module 6 Figure 2 Filling the syringe with distilled water 7 Figure 3 Placing inner containers 7 Figure 4 Connecting tubes 8 Figure 5 Using fuel cells and solar panel 8 Figure 6 Inserting batteries 10 Figure 7 Assembling electrical fans 10 Figure 8 Connecting the motor to reversible fuel cell 11 Figure 9 Using solar panel 11 Introduction Hydrogen derived from renewable sources such as wind and solar is clean, self-sufficient and a permanent energy solution for sustainable development. A kilogram of hydrogen is roughly equivalent to a gallon of gasoline in energy content. (Johanna L, 2007) This makes hydrogen a technology of the future in reducing reliance on imported fuel and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen could be produced from fossil fuels using steam reforming, which emits CO2 and expensive ways such as catalytic cracking without CO2 emissions. This pathway is more cost-effective. Water electrolysis is an efficient and expensive way because of its high electricity requirement. For instance, a study (Khan M.J., Iqbal M.T., 2005) stated that assuming an electricity cost of $0.05/kwh, nearly nowadays price of wind produced electricity; hydrogen made from water electrolysis costs more than $2.84/kg based on higher heating value. Hydrogen produced from photovoltaic is also expensive because of high PV electricity cost.( Sherif S.A. et al, 2005) Wind produced electricity, on the other hand, is becoming more competitive nowadays. Therefore, it can produce less expensive hydrogen. Electrolysis: The general principle in electrolysis is that water is supplied to an electrochemical cell, and hydrogen evolves at the anode while oxygen evolves at the cathode when the supplied energy is greater than the zero current cell potential. Alkaline electrolysis is commercially available technology. It takes place at a temperature around 800C and pressure of 1-30bar.( US department of energy, 2010) Fuel cells: Fuel cells are ele ctrochemical devices that convert chemical energy in fuel to electrical energy with high efficiency and low environmental impact. Because combustion is avoided, they produce power with minimum pollution. They contain electrodes anode and cathode separated by an electrolyte. Fuels such as hydrogen or hydrogen rich synthesis gas, are supplied to the anodes while the oxidant is fed to the cathodes. The most common oxidant is oxygen from air. Electrochemical reaction occurs in the electrolyte producing current while deriving external load.( Fuel cell Handbook, 2010) Materials and Methods Preparation of the Electrolyzer Module and Solar Powered Hydrogen Production 1. Insert the reversible fuel cell, terminals on top, into the slot on the base. Cut 2 x 4cm length pieces of rubber tube and insert a black pin into the end of one tube. Place the tube with the black pin into the top pin on the hydrogen side (with black terminal). Place the other tube firmly onto the top input nozzle on the ox ygen side. Figure 1 preparation of the electrolyzer module 2. Fill