Monday, September 30, 2019

Sunrise Wheelchair Case Study

Our team recommends Chandler to introduce Guardian’s new lightweight standard wheelchair. Guardian is not a player in wheelchairs with only a 2% share of the standard wheelchair market and nothing else.The purpose for Guardian to introduce the lightweight standard wheelchair, with a forecast market growth rate of 15% yearly, is only meant to complement Guardian’s existing product to seek for higher growth in its division since the profit margins of its existing product lines are razor thin.What’s more important is that Guardian’s new lightweight standard wheelchair is positioned differently from Quickie’s, with a distinct design and features at lower prices more towards a low-end market. Although cannibalization may still be a concern, the chances are Guardian will able to find a niche market for a different target segments differ from Quickie’s.There is a demand and a need for Guardian division to expand product line to grow. Guardian took a lmost half of the market share of crutches, walkers and other product lines. Although the rest half has been controlled by others, it can be regarded as the potential sale of us, as if we can provide a rival product with even better quality to earn that possible profit.This new wheelchair is a good tool to complete the product line, and cover the demand of expanding profitability as well. Quickie, rather than worrying about cannibalized by Guardian’s chair, should put more efforts on building its competitive advantages to differentiate itself from its major competitor Invacare, not Guardian. Invacare’s wheelchair model has beat Quickie’s. Quickie is kind of an unhealthy divergence within Sunrise’s product line, which is losing competition power.Introducing Guardian’s chair will help Sunrises fight against its main competitors, Everest & Jennings International and Invacare. They were competing by cutting down price since 1990.By making few changes o f Guardian’s standard product, the new chair would carry a wholesale price 10% below Invacare’s lightweight standard model. If Quickie continues to lose competitiveness, adding Guardian’s new wheelchair can be a backup and beneficial for the whole company.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

The Reasons Why the World’s Languages Are Disappearing

The reasons why the world’s languages are disappearing Language is everything; because language is a part of culture which is inseparable with human’s life. People speak by their language regardless of what language they use. There are more than 60. 000 languages which do exist in the world; but unfortunately nowadays every fortnight, a language dies; more than half of the world’s languages are in danger; and by the end of this century it is going to disappear completely. The pace of the languages extinctions are faster than the extinction of flora and fauna. The proof is in the last 5 centuries, an estimated half of the world’s languages have become extinct; but now language does not even need much longer period to become extinct; a century and it will be done. The primary reason as to why the world’s languages are disappearing is it has no longer speakers. Research proved that for the minor language, only a few people speak. Ironically, what research means by minor is the local languages; in fact there are much more languages that is considered as minor or local rather than the major. It means that there are lots of languages which potentially extinct. Next, the second reason is the languages are considered old-fashioned. Moreover, some societies are surrounded by people who speak more common language. Therefore, those societies decide to leave their mother tongue because it is some kind of disgrace of still speaking it in the middle of the society who speak more modern languages. The third one, it is because of natural disaster. It just disappeared instantly. People died and also the language. Therefore there is nobody who can spread the language; because they themselves as the native speakers died. Reason number four is because of the complexity. People hate learning a difficult language; lots of minor and local languages have a high complexity as of finally people do not want to learn it and by doing so, they do not speak it. Finally, there are 4 reasons why lots languages died out. All of them are the basic reasons; but not only human who has contributed to the disappearing but also the nature. Therefore to stop the disappearing, there must be something that we are suppose to do; such as try to learn the local language, learn to be proud of it and learn to keep it all the time.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Anti Animal Testing of Body Shop

The Issue: Anti-Animal Testing Campaign Award: RSPCA Good Business Awards 2009 Background of the Corporation In 1976, Anita Riddick founded The Body Shop, a natural, environmentally minded cosmetics shop in England. Today, The Body Shop has over 2,400 stores in 61 countries around the world and is headquartered in Little Hampton, West Sussex, and England. In 2006, L’Oreal acquired The Body Shop for an estimated ? 652. 3 million. Anita continued to have a large amount creative control over the company until her death in 2007.Description of the issue There are millions of animals including rabbits, guinea pigs, mice and rats continue to suffer and die an agonizing death behind the companies who refuses to give up the practice for nothing more than human vanity. The body shop cares about the treatment of animals so we are continuing to take a leadership role in protecting animals and seek alternatives to animal testing. There are over 300 of The Body Shop stores in United Kingdom have launched pledge to ban animal testing on cosmetics around the world.We have a strict requirement of the human cosmetic standard which was set by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV) in order to ensure the process of producing is ethical. Why do we have to against animal testing? All those animals are made to suffer and die in a variety of routine tests for cosmetics products and their ingredients. For example, repeated dose toxicity and reproductive toxicity. Rabbits or rats are force to eat or inhale cosmetics ingredients or have it rubbed onto their shaved skin every day for 90 days and are then killed.As our slogan of â€Å"Beauty with Heart†, we cannot accept this thing happen in the world. We are then in particular to influence all cosmetic industries prohibit in using animal testing for cosmetics or other ingredients that are harmful to animal. Objectives 1. Informational objectives The body shop builds a partnership with Cruelty Free Internat ional (CFI) and Leaping Bunny program which is the only standard that ensures there is no animal testing secured at any phase of product development. It is in order to create an industry-changing impact and to provide transferability to others in the cosmetic industries. 2.Attitudinal objectives The body shop builds a relationship with customers by using their powers to influence with suppliers to address and eliminate the animal testing issue. Implementation This issue is crucial to all protect animal organizations and customers. The Body Shop has carried out this campaign with CFI and we seek global ban of animals to test cosmetic. International Values and R&D Director of the Body Shop have taken the lead of a long commitment to this cause and Our Technical Compliance Team is responsible for ensuring that no ingredients we use have been tested on animals since the end of December 1990.We do support CFI to achieve a worldwide ban on animal testing. In 1996, we have already collecte d over 4-million petition signatures and delivered to the European Commission with the success of banning on animal testing for finished cosmetics products in 2004. Croatia and Norway have followed suit by banning animal tests for cosmetics and ingredients and in 2015 Israel will also implement a ban. Although European Union has announced the policy on banning animal testing, there is still approximately 80% of the world allows animals to be used in cruel experiments.We still need to continue supporting CFI to achieve this mission. Communication Plan Constituencies Constituent groups include: animal rights organization, animal protection groups, suppliers and their trade organizations; customers, investors, animal scientists and other academic in the animal science arena and media. We focus on one of the target – customers as the main stakeholder that would direct affect our market on cosmetic industries. The Body Shop audits regularly to ensure absolute compliance with Briti sh Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV) Humane Cosmetics Standard (HCS).We are committed to our Against Animal Testing policy as we ever were and to guarantee that one of our products are tested on animals. We communicate clearly on our policies to customers and suppliers; hope to create a bigger influence to all cosmetic users throughout the world. Responses of constituency (Source: Cruelty Free International) As the report has mentioned that we have successfully collected over 4-million petition signatures to support anti-animal testing program. Customers are more willing to put efforts to encourage this program all over the world.To show our promise to influence over 80% of the world, we raise awareness among employees and listen to our stakeholders in order to maintain, measure, monitor and report on our performance. On the other hand, we have invited volunteers to promote our message of against cosmetic testing on animal by creating a 400 people flash mob taking a stan ce in support of CFI’s campaign in June, 2012. So as to response our stakeholders, we have published our campaign on our official website, www. thebodyshop. co. uk/ . CorporationThe Body Shop believes that all animals have their value and respect; we will continue to lead the way of opposing animal testing by demonstrating the highest monitoring standards and clear customer communication. We are glad to gain trust from our customers to support our program, so we have labeled our products against animal testing to ensure the continued awareness of our customers and employees. The body shop is looking forward to build up a good relationship with customers in order to continue our mission of this issue.We also desire to use it purchasing power and influence with customers to address and eliminate the cosmetic animal testing. Our whole company will be involved in this issue especially the connection with our supplier as we need to ensure all of our products are not tested by anim als. Therefore, we will first study whether the ingredients can be bought in organic or Fair Trade form and what certification can be provided. We are now part of the leading beauty group in the world, L’Oreal but our commitment and principle of ethical have not changed.This corporation would only make us to have stronger resources to influence the whole world about this issue. Since L’Oreal is well- known for the quality of their scientific research and they have been applying that expertise to finding alternatives to animal testing for cosmetics. One particular success has been the development of a new synthetic epidermis called â€Å"Episkin†, which mimics the physiology and reaction of human skin so well that it can be used to test the effects of many chemicals.We are hopeful that this addition to the range of non-animal test will make a significant difference to overall cosmetics sector, as it has been made available to use for the whole industry. The body shop has founded over 35 years with a positive reputation thanks to all employees and customers’ encouragement. The Body Shop has been praised by customers as the British brand with the best corporate reputation, according to a new survey by brand consultancy Added Value.Despite The Body Shop’s acquisition by the global beauty group, L’Oreal, it remains a brand recognized for its ethical viewpoint, although it may need to keep abreast of changing consumer attitudes to hold onto its leadership position. Nevertheless, we always keep our good reputation to continue persuading other countries on non-animal testing. Messages The body shop has launched several events to convey the message of anti-animal testing through the media. Instance, the biggest ambitious campaign is the partnership with CFI telling the world about the cause of animal testing with facts and empathy to all people who loves beauty with heart.We are calling on governments for a ban on animal testin g for cosmetics in every country around the world by signing the pledge at our stores. We have to send a strong message to governments that cruelty-free is not just humane; it is a good way to do business too and these entire signatures by customers or people who love beauty with heart presented to relevant governments and stakeholders who can influence the introduction of a ban. We are proud to have the support of CFI and the pledges with all signatures will enable to do all we can to ensure that no animals are harmed in tests for the cosmetics industry.The body shop has expended the campaign internet to let people who are not located in our stores to give a support on this issue. Apart from the corporation with CFI, The Body Shop has also done different kind of means to promote our message such as labeling our important message â€Å"Against animal testing† on all of our products. We are in processing on holding several beauty contests to get attention from all customers on this issue. For example, we are going to launch two beauty competitions. Beauty with heart make-up competition is a competition aim at showing human’s beauty by using our The Body Shop make-up products.We want to give a message of showing our making procedures of all products are ethical without any harm to animals. Either of showing how natural and pure of our products, the importance of beauty is also one of the main points that we want to give out. Being beautiful is not only for the appearance but also the inner beauty of a person. To love myself is to firstly love others include animals; we have to understand the highest standard of beautiful is being beauty with moral and spiritual. Video education of beauty competition, we want to convey the cruel fact of animal testing on animal to all customers and also students.We have to strike a balance between beauties and ethical on business, we wish to spread our issue to our next generation; therefore video education is the m ost effective way of telling them the importance of inner beauty. This aims to structure the trustiest part of animal testing process to let people understand animal can be beautiful too if we stop killing and harming them, animal should deserve a fair treat as human being. Through the process of animal testing, we wish to educate or tell the truth of beauty to everyone around the world.The alternatives to using animals to test cosmetics These modern methods are more relevant to humans and have been found to predict human reactions better than the traditional outdated animal tests. According to the CFI, â€Å"to assess skin irritation alternatives such as Reconstituted Human Epidermis, like the skin model EPISKIN, can be used. These tests use reconstituted human skin donated from cosmetic surgery and have been shown to be more effective than the original cruel rabbit Draize skin test that they replace.Models also exist and can be used to replace cruel animal tests for eye irritatio n, the effects of skin sensitization can be predicted by looking at proteins in-vitro (in a test tube), and phototoxicity can also be assessed with a cell based test. † Furthermore, companies can prove their products are safe by utilizing established ingredients. There are, for example, almost 20,000 ingredients in the European Union’s database for which safety data is available. Evaluation Response of constituencies As noticed above, The Body Shop has already collected over 4 million signatures with estimated 275 million people a year who visit our stores.With over millions of volunteers who support us by making videos and spread our message through social networking devices such as Facebook, YouTube as well as Twitter with a vote on our issue. Corporation After being acquired by L’Oreal, a company accused of using animal testing. There was some speculation over if The Body Shop would continue to have this same standard of no animal testing, but the company seem ed to be unchanged, keeping all its values intact. Awards In October 2009, The Body Shop was awarded a ‘Lifetime Achievement Award’ by the  RSPCA (Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) inBritain. They were given this honor for complying with the strict requirements of the Humane Cosmetics Standards. Result In 2004, European Union is banned the animal testing for cosmetics. Croatia and Norway have followed suit by banning animal tests for cosmetics and ingredients and in 2015 Israel will also implement a ban. We have also successfully influenced other beauty companies with the help of CFI to ban on animal testing which has shown on the appendices. Reference Unknown. (2012). Against Animal Testing. Retrieved from http://www. thebodyshop. om/values/AgainstAnimalTesting. aspx The Body Shop International plc. (2012). 2012 Annual value report. Bostrock and Pollitt Limited, London. Retrieved from http://www. thebodyshop. com/content/pdf/global-values_report . pdf Source. (2008). The Body Shop praised by consumers as brand with best reputation in Britain. Retrieved from http://www. added-value. com/source/2008/03/the-body-shop-praised-by-consumers-as-brand-with-best-reputation-in-britain/ Cruelty-Free International. (2012). Animal Tests and Alternatives. Retrieved from http://www. rueltyfreeinternational. org/en/the-issue/animal-tests-and-alternatives Tatiana Houdegbe. (2011). The Body Shop. Retrieved from http://fashionwithaheart. wordpress. com/2011/05/20/the-body-shop-csr/ Appendices Ranking of The Body Shop The online CFI Pledge The label of against animal testing on products ——————————————– [ 1 ]. 400 people took a stance against animal testing for cosmetics in support of Cruelty-Free International’s Campaign. With reference on http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=miMoU7GO2JE&feature=related

Friday, September 27, 2019

Merchants PLC Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Merchants PLC - Essay Example The capacity of raising funds depends on the resources from which funds might be accessible. The company forms of partnership and sole proprietor have limited chances for raising funds. Banks will generally only desire to finance businesses where there is a revenue stream or short risk assets i.e., assets which can safeguard loans. The company can raise money by several ways by increasing short- term and long-term capital; they can also include -issue of shares and debentures, loans from financial institutions, loans from banks, public deposits. â€Å"Capital may also be raised by development taxes levied on either developers or households, or both. For example, a value-capture tax may be levied on the estimated increase in land value due to the development of related infrastructure.† The main benefits of the sources of finance for the company includes decreasing the reliance on outside sources of finance; it raises the credit value of the company, allowing the company to withstand complicated circumstances and allowing the company to accept a constant dividend policy. â€Å"Merchants has for many years focused on a simple proposition, to deliver a high and rising income stream, together with long term capital growth through investing predominantly in large UK companies.†

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Ethical Issue Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Ethical Issue - Essay Example The meaning of ethical issues is dealing with or regarding the principles or morals of morality (MacNair, 2003). Ethical issues are concerning the rights and wrongs in conduct, expressing or involving moral approval, in reference to principles of conduct, which are regarded correct, particularly those of a given group or profession for instance nursing. Basic values of saving life, as well as alleviating suffering, is shared by a member of the nursing and medical professions (Bandman, 2002). Codes of honesty, confidentiality and colleagueship, are also anticipated in these groups. Nevertheless, the spirit of obedience and servitude, questioned by Mitchell (2008), but influenced by a majority of nurses, has led to numerous differences in the manner in which dilemmas are tackled and the context in which doctors and nurses regard their professional ethics. This paper will give a comprehensive overview of an ethical issue and its relationship to the ethical and legal aspects of nursing o r other health care professions. It will include an exploration of the pro and con sides of the ethical issue and take a stand on the issue and also critically evaluate the current impact of the ethical issue. ... A majority of the stands nurses presume in this dilemma are persuaded by their own values and beliefs (Bandman, 2002). The consequences, at times, are harsh to both the nurse and the patient. Therefore, how does a nurse provide her services to a patient who has gone through an abortion, when the nurse regards abortion as murder? Should the nurse, with very different values, support the patient’s right to decide her autonomy? Pro Side of the Issue The most frequent reasons why women consider abortion are: Unable to care or support for the child. Birth control failure. Nearly half of all women who have gone through an abortion made use of a contraceptive technique in the month they got pregnant (MacNair, 2003). To stop the birth of a child with harsh medical problems or birth defects. Such defects are frequently unidentified until routine second-trimester assessments are carried out. To terminate an unwanted pregnancy. Mental or physical conditions, which jeopardize the pregnant woman’s health when the pregnancy is continued. Pregnancy resulting from incest or rape. All these are strong reasons why abortion is considered (Bandman, 2002). I also think that a pregnant woman ought to have access to a harmless, legal abortion if she requires one. I endorse a pregnant woman's right to harmless, legal abortion since centuries of history tells us that women are going to make the final decision regarding abortions whether they are legal and safe, or not. Furthermore, when the act is not safe and legal, these women might die terribly or be damaged permanently meaning that they might become barren (MacNair, 2003). Therefore, the pro side of this issue is that it saves women the possibility of going through an unsafe and illegal abortion. In my dream utopia, there would

Investment Strategy and Portfolio Management Assignment - 2

Investment Strategy and Portfolio Management - Assignment Example When choices increases, shaping and monitoring investment portfolios becomes more complicated and it is more exposed to excessive risks. To succeed in portfolio market, it requires one to make more research in order to learn how to evaluate fundamental issue and manage related risk. This increases effectiveness to clients and organization leading to more productivity. In order to succeed in investment environment, Nelly company they should have proper management of cash. They should always have knowledge of cash they receive from regular contribution of their members made and how much the fund grows. This will enable them to know the amount of money they will use to finance education (Kendrick, 2009).Later the company management should discus and make decisions on how to finance the education and how much they should have for the company to profit which will be available for contributor to make the withdraw. They should also come up with rules which should be favourable for the company and the contributor to minimize the amount they should withdraw than the amount they contribute (Elton & Gruber, 1995). The success of Nelly Company can be brought by setting complicated and favourable rules for members who would like to withdraw their funds and which can bring the member core benefits in future. The members who have more than four years and would like to withdraw their funds can be given a portion, say, 20 percent of their net contributions. The remainder should be used for funds creation at an interest which then and be allocated to these members on a residual basis. This ensures that the company remains a going concern and may not necessarily liquidate (Aiken, 2008). The company can also borrow quickly from other financing institution under a line of credit agreement, which permits company to have up to a specified maximum amount. The company will be able to buy marketable

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 8

Management - Essay Example Examples of liabilities include debts repayable, deferred revenue and current-year loan and note payments (Sveiby, 2007). Liabilities = Assets – Capital Shareholders’ funds Shareholders’ funds are a gauge of the shareholders' entire interest in the business represented by the sum of share capital and reserves (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2002). Shareholders' funds are the balance sheet value of the shareholders' interest in a company. Capital = Assets – Liabilities In order for a business to be economically health, the company’s total assets should be more than its total liabilities. Current assets such as cash, receivables, and securities should be able to cover liabilities. If a company‘s assets significantly exceed its current liabilities, the company may not be putting its wealth to the most excellent use. Definition of intellectual property and forms of legal protection available to intellectual property. Intellectual property laws are laws set by countries with inventive home based industries to promote innovation by regulating the replication of inventions, identifying symbols, and creative expressions (Draft, 2002). These laws include patent rights; trademarks; copyrights and trade secrets. Patent rights protect inventions or patent (Management notes). Patent rights guarantee the originator, a unique right to avoid others from creating, using, and selling the inventor’s patented contraption for a predetermined span of time especially 20 years in return for the confession of the invention’s information to the civic under the stipulations of the social contract. Another form of intellectual property is copyrights; the right of owning written work like a book, document, a patch of code or software application (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2002). This property is protected by a set of rights granted by the law of jurisdiction to the author of the original work and according to the World Intellectual Property organizat ion rights protected by copyright include; the owner’s right to permit or prohibit, duplicate, allotment, public presentation, transformation, broadcasting, and version (Draft, 2002). More over, trademark is a word, symbol, device, or name used to designate the foundation of the goods and to differentiate them from other goods in the market (Management notes). Trademarks are exclusive to exact brand, product, or individual and consequently need to be secluded in the concern of preserving a product’s identity (Patents and data protection). In other words, trademarks refer to a distinctive indicator used by either individuals or organizations to identify itself to customers or consumers (Patents and data protection). Essentially, it enables the indication, that, the products or services originate from exceptional entity and designated for a particular market. In case of any infringement on the trademark, the owner may initiate legal proceedings to prevent unauthorized us e of the trademark. Advantages of a Gantt chart It helps in the planning of a project. One can see at a glance the project tasks and time schedules (Clark, 2002). A Gantt chart is suitable for small projects that fit on a single sheet. Gantt chart exhibits dependencies amid tasks using focussed

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 403

Assignment Example The program effectiveness lies in the fact that it enables all companies whether large or small to get access to financing when converting exports to sales. Many businesses are currently using the program to help whenever they have emergencies in exporting their products yet they face cash deficit. Additionally, the U.S Export-Import Bank only fills the gap left in the financial market by the existing banks (Krahmer, 1990). That increases its effectiveness because businesses use it when under financial need. The flexibility of the program makes it quite effective in use by the enterprise originations (Liu, 2011). As Liu (2011) reports, the program also offers other benefits such as enabling the applying company to purchase raw materials and a collection of accounts receivable. It also guarantees the provision of working capital to the firms at any moment. Additionally, the program reduces the bureaucracy involved in getting a loan. For instance, the application fee is approximately $100 submitted with company’s financial statements for at least the past one year. The time saved by having a short chain of procedures further makes the program effective in helping the business firms sort out their financial emergencies or

Monday, September 23, 2019

Consumer buyer behavior about ego-expressive way in the decision Case Study

Consumer buyer behavior about ego-expressive way in the decision making of rolex costumer - Case Study Example The owners of the Rolex Watch product rely on their understanding of the consumer behavior extensively as many other successful businesses. The consumers of the watch as a product are diverse and they present various factors that lead them towards purchasing the product readily. The Rolex Watch brand is the leading and most expensive Watch in the market currently. There are several types of the Watch. Moreover, Rolex manufactures watches designated for each of the genders, ages and uses. These are essential factors of consideration in the pricing aspect of the product. For instance, according to information gathered through the interactions with the Rolex professionals, the female gender used to constitute a large share of their customers. However, with the current developments in the market, the company is also manufacturing watches for men in large volumes, meaning that the male population is also a considerable consumer volume of the watches. The aspects of use, it depends on the reasons why the consumer purchases the watch. The latest development in the company is the establishment of the Rolex diving watch. Thus, with such watches, resistant to water, offering quality and accurate time measurement initiates the desire in the consumers to own a watch. The larger base of the consumer of the Rolex Watch includes the rich people, collectors of antiques and retail business people. The aspect that the Rolex Watch has a high pricing means that the consumers with low income are unable to afford the product. In manufacturing the product, Rolex focus on people with an interest in brand and aesthetic value of products. The watch established itself as a virtually dominant brand in the market, due to its association with class and high social status. The watch enjoys an ego-expressive status in its customers, as they seek the product for various reasons, all related

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Housing Industry in America Essay Example for Free

Housing Industry in America Essay The American housing industry forms a vital component of the American economy as homes are the basic necessity for everyone. The industry offers jobs for various people from different professions including carpenters, masons, architects, engineers, technicians, interior designers, civil engineers, designers, artists, etc. The entire industry is distributed over several small companies rather than one single large company. However, in the US, there have been several mergers and acquisitions of the smaller companies recently. Most of the people in the US actually live in homes or apartments constructed by the housing industry and hence they have a huge stake in the market. The American housing industry constructs variety of homes including apartments, townhouses, single-family house, custom-build house, etc. A small number of people in the US actually live in houses build by themselves. Most of the houses constructed in the US are build on-site and a fewer number are fabricated in the factory and late transported to their actual site. The construction material used in various areas of the US is also different based on the geographic requirements, local resources available, etc. It may be cheaper and easier to build homes in one region of the US compared to another. Besides, the material used by the housing industry has changed over the last century since the housing industry came into picture. Earlier the housing industry used a lot of wood, asbestos, tiles, and lead-rich paint. Today the construction industry is using greater amount of concrete, steel and plastics (Muldin, 2008). Due to the recent recession and economic slowdown, the housing industry in the US has experienced a significant drop of about 3. 1 %. In more than 43 states the cost of homes has dropped by about 8 %. One of the main reasons for this is the difficultly for consumers to pay loans and mortgages (Muldin, 2008).

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Protective Role of Isolated Rat Hepatocytes Against CCL4

Protective Role of Isolated Rat Hepatocytes Against CCL4 DISCUSSION CCl4, Paracetamol and Anti-tubercular drugs cause ROS mediated cellular damage especially in liver, the site of metabolism of these drugs. During the regular physiological functioning the cells/tissues/organs use oxygen and various nutrients to generate energy. The free radicals are also generated in this process as the reaction intermediates. These free radicals may be very useful because they may promote beneficial oxidative processes. However the higher quantities of such radicals like superoxide anion (O2à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ·), NOà ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ · radical, and hydroxyl ion radical (à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ·OH), NOOà ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ·, etc. may interact with the membrane lipids leading to lipid peroxidation and attack the DNA resulting DNA strand breaks. The lipid peroxidation also damage cell membrane resulting in the leakage of enzymes into the blood stream. Therefore the elevated biochemical levels are treated as biochemical markers of tissue damage. In addition the extent of lipid peroxidation is d irectly proportional to the tissue damage [Devasagayam et al., 2003]. There are certain inbuilt protective mechanisms, tissue enzymes GSH, SOD, CAT etc. which are involved in the process of combating free radical induced tissue damage. Over powering the inbuilt protective mechanism due to excessive generation of free radicals may lead to destruction of the tissues/organs [Tiwari, 2001]. Antioxidants are the chemical constituents, which are used for inhibiting the tissue damage by countering the free radicals; most of the antioxidants available in the markets are from natural origin e.g. vit-E, vit-C, tocopherol, quercetine, à ¯Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢-carotene etc. In addition there are reports that polyphenolic compounds like flavonoids, tannins are useful as antioxidants and organ protectants. Therefore many researchers are attempting to screen the herbs and herbal preparations containing polyphenolic compounds for organ protective properties. Mruthunjaya, 2008 in his study reported the presence of very high amount of polyphenols and gallic acid, a well known potent antioxidant [Gow- chin et al, 2002] as an important constituent of the roots of a widely grown plant L. inermis. He also reported the antioxidant and in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective activity of L. inermis root extract against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. So in the present study L.inermis was selected f or investigating the in vivo and in vitro hepatoprotective activity against drugs induced hepatotoxicity. Before screening the test extract for in vivo hepatoprotective activity the extract was subjected to the acute toxicity studies as per OECD guidelines 425 (limit test). The LIALC was found safe up to 2000 mg/kg as evident by the absence of mortality in the treated group. Hence, 1/10th (200 mg/kg) and 1/7th (300 mg/kg) of the safe dose were selected for the in vivo study. In vitro hepatoprotective Screening In the present study, isolated rat hepatocytes were used. The objective of this study was to confirm the protective role of test extracts against CCl4 induced hepatocytes damage. The CCl4 metabolized in (liver) endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria with the formation of CCl3O (unstable complex radical), by CYT P-450. The nascent oxygen O resulted via lipoperoxidation causes rise in intracellular reactive Fe2+ ions, aldehyde and depletion of GSH, and calcium sequestration. Oxidative CCl3O, also by direct covalent interaction induces degeneration in Ca2+ sequestration. Failure into sequestration result in increased intercellular Ca2+, aggregation by proteolytic enzymes and cause an increase in Fe2+ ions, which in turn by lipid peroxidation precipitates aldehyde cytotoxicity [Zimmerman Hayman, 1976, Agarwal et. al., 1983]. Due to this membrane integrity is lost ultimately leading to necrosis. The loss of membrane integrity can be measured by Trypan blue exclusion assay in which the viable cells exclude the dye whereas dead cell take up the dye owing to the alteration in membrane permeability. Due to loss of membrane integrity cytosolic enzymes are leaked into media and the measurement of these cytoplasmic enzymes in the media serves as ideal markers for evaluating the extent of hepatocyte injury and protection offered by extracts. From the results it was apparent that both LIALC and LIAQ protect the hepatocytes against CCl4 damage as evident by the reversal of cell death and inhibition leakage of cytosolic enzymes. As discussed earlier this strong hepatoprotective activity of LIALC might be due presence of polyphenols and gallic acid which are potent free radical scavenging agents and antioxidants [Gow- chin et al, 2002] In vivo hepatoprotective activity Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug and is safe when used in therapeutic doses. However over dosage of Paracetamol is known to be hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic in man and in experimental animals [Parmar et al., 1995]. Paracetamol is a direct hepatotoxin i.e. intoxication is dose dependent and reproducible [Tygstrup et al., 1996]. Exposure of animals to higher doses produces centrilobular or massive hepatic necrosis followed by congestion and failure. The hepatic necrosis is associated with damage to sub cellular organelle including mitochondria. Thus the drug is used as a typical hepatotoxin to produce hepatic failure experimentally [Sing et al., 1999]. At lower doses, about 80% of ingested Paracetamol is eliminated mainly as sulfate and glucoronide conjugates before oxidation and only 5% is oxidized by hepatic CYT P450(CYP2E1) to a highly reactive and toxic electrophile i.e. N-acetyl-p-benzoquineimine (NAPQI). After over dosage of Paracetamol the glucoronidation and sulfation routes become saturated and as a consequence, Paracetamol is increasingly metabolized into NAPQI [Remirez et al., 1995]. Semiquinone radical, one-electron reduction metabolite of NAPQI mediates the cytotoxic effects of NAPQI. Production of these toxic semiquinone radicals is catalyzed by the microsomal CYT P450 reductase. These semiquinone radicals, in turn, can bind directly with cellular macromolecules to produce toxicity or alternatively, the radical can be reoxidized back to their original quinones by donating one electron to molecular oxygen under aerobic conditions. This donation of one electron then generates reduced oxygen radical species and hydroxyl radical. Both semiquinone and oxygen radical are known to be responsible for cytotoxic effects observed with quinones. Also NAPQI is detoxified by glutathione (GSH) to form 3-(GSH-S-yl) acetaminophen. Paracetamol overdose saturates the nontoxic metabolic pathway, i.e. sulfation, glucuronidation, and detoxification of NAPQI by glutathione. The reactive NAPQI may oxidize and arylate cysteinyl thiol group, forming adducts which inhibit the function of cellular proteins. Adducts formation has been demonstrated for a selenium-binding protein, for microsomal subunit of glutamine. Other mechanism, such as oxidation of pyridine nucleotides and lipid peroxidation, may contribute to cell damage by Paracetamol overdose [Tygstrup et al., 1996]. Nevertheless at high doses of Paracetamol, NAPQI can alkylate and oxidize intracellular GSH and protein thiol group, which result in the liver GSH pool depletion and the reactive intermediate reacts with other nucleophilic centers of vital molecules in liver cells leading subsequently to hepatotoxicity. In addition Paracetamol is also shown to directly inhibit cellular proliferation, induce oxidative stress, resulting in lipid peroxidation, deplete ATP levels and alter Ca++ homeostasis; all of these changes are considered potentially fatal to the cell [Sing,. 1999 and Remirez et al., 1995]. Anti-tuberculosis drugs act as inducers of hepatic CYT P450 enzymes. For example, Rifampicin is a potent inducer of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, and Isoniazid induces CYP2E1 [Trevor, 2004 and Vuilleumier et al., 2006]. The induction of CYT P450 enzymes is known to take part in increased drug disposition and development of multi-drug resistance. Xenobiotics, including anti-tubercular drugs, undergo biotransformation in the liver catalyzed by microsomal enzyme systems [Bradford, 2005; Dai et al., 1995and Jeong, 1995]. Because of above reasons, Paracetamol and anti-tubercular drugs cause ROS mediated hepatotoxicity and elevate serum enzymes levels like SGOT, SGPT, ALP, LDH and Bilirubin content in animals following administration of anti-tubercular drugs or toxic dose of Paracetamol. Also these drugs cause depletion of endogenous antioxidant enzymes like GSH, SOD, CAT etc and abnormal levels of lipid peroxidation products.The results obtained in the present are in accordance with understanding as discussed above. i.e the serum enzymes levels like SGOT, SGPT, ALP, LDH and Bilirubin contents were significantly increased, GSH, SOD, CAT levels in liver depleted and abnormal levels of lipid peroxidation was observed in Paracetamol and anti-tubercular drugs treated animals. Estimation of serum enzymes SGPT is a cytosolic enzyme primarily present in the liver. The level of SGPT in serum increases due to leakage of this cellular enzyme into plasma by hepatic injury [Chenoweth Hake, 1962]. Serum levels of SGPT can increase due to damage of the tissues producing acute hepatic necrosis, such as viral hepatitis and acute cholestasis. Alcoholic liver damage and cirrhosis also can associate with mild to moderate elevation of transaminase [Harsh Mohan, 2002]. SGOT is a mitochondrial enzyme released from heart, liver, skeletal muscle and kidney. Liver toxicity elevated the SGOT level in serum due to the damage to the tissues producing acute necrosis, such as severe viral hepatitis acute cholestasis. Alcoholic liver damage and cirrhosis can also associate with mild to moderate elevation of transaminases [Harsh Mohan, 2002]. In case of toxic liver, ALP levels are very high, which may be due to defective hepatic excretion or by increased production of ALP by hepatic parenchymal or duct cells [Harsh Mohan, 2002]. LIALC reversed these enzyme levels indicating stabilization of cell membrane by preventing the damage due to free radicals generated by Paracetamol and anti-tubercular drugs. Estimation of bilirubin: In case of toxic liver, bilirubin levels are elevated. Hyperbilirubinemia can result from impaired hepatic uptake of unconjugated bilirubin. Such a situation can occur in generalized liver cell injury. Certain drugs (e.g., Rifampin and Probenecid) interfere with the net uptake of bilirubin by the liver cell and may produce a mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia [Rubin, 1995]. Bilirubin level rises in diseases of hepatocytes, obstruction to biliary excretion into duodenum, in haemolysis and defects of hepatic uptake and conjugation of bilirubin pigment such as in Gilbert’s disease [Harsh mohan, 2002]. Significant reversal of elevated bilirubin level in Paracetamol and anti-tubercular drug treated animals by LIALC indicated the strong hepatoprotective activity of LIALC. Estimation of Protein A reduction in total serum protein observed in the Paracetamol and anti-tubercular treated control rats may be associated with the decrease in the number of hepatocytes which in turn might result in decreased hepatic capacity to synthesize protein. But, when the LIALC was administered along with Paracetamol or anti-tubercular drugs a significant increase in protein content was observed indicating the hepatoprotection of LIALC. Estimation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation Cells have a number of mechanisms to protect themselves from the toxic effects of the ROS. SOD removes superoxide (O2) by converting it to H2O2, which can be rapidly converted to water by CAT and Glutathione peroxidase. In addition, a large reserve of reduced glutathione is present in hepatocytes and red blood cells for detoxification of xenobiotics or free radicals. However, oxidative stress results in toxicity when the rate of which the ROS are generated exceeds the cell capacity for their removal. Lipid peroxidation is an autocatalytic process, which is a common consequence of cell death. This process may cause peroxidative tissue damage in inflammation, cancer and toxicity of xenobiotics and aging. MDA is one of the end products in the lipid peroxidation process. In order to elucidate the protection mechanism of LIALC in Paracetamol and anti- tubercular Drugs induced rat liver, lipid peroxide levels and anti-oxidative enzymes activities were analyzed. GSH is widely distributed in cells. GSH is an intracellular reductant and plays a major role in catalysis, metabolism and transport. It protects cells against free radicals, peroxides and other toxic compounds. GSH is a naturally occurring substance that is abundant in many living creatures. It is well known that a deficiency of GSH within living organisms can lead to tissue disorders and injury. For example, liver injury included by consuming alcohol or by taking drugs like Paracetamol, lung injury by smoking and muscle injury by intense physical activity, all are known to be correlated with low tissue level of GSH. The SOD converts super-oxide radicals (O2_) into H2O2 plus O2, thus participating in the enzymatic defense against oxygen toxicity. In this study, SOD plays an important role in the elimination of ROS derived from the peroxidative process of xenobiotics in liver tissues. CAT is the key component of the anti-oxidant defense system .Inhibition of this protective mechanisms result in enhanced sensitivity to free radical induced cellular damage. Administration of LIALC increased the activity of catalase in Paracetamol and anti-tubercular drug induced liver damage to prevent the accumulation of excessive free radicals and thus exhibited protection against Paracetamol and anti-tubercular drug. The observed increase of SOD, CAT and GSH activity in liver suggests that the LIALC extract have an efficient protective mechanism in response to ROS. And also, these findings indicate that LIALC may be associated with decreased oxidative stress and free radical mediated tissue damage. In our study, elevation in the levels of end products of lipid peroxidation in liver of rat treated with Paracetamol and anti- tubercular drugs were observed. The increase in MDA level in liver suggests enhanced lipid peroxidation leading to tissue damage and failure of anti-oxidant defense mechanism to prevent formation of excessive free radicals. Treatment with LIALC significantly reversed these changes. Hence it may be possible that the mechanism of hepatoprotection of LIALC is due to its antioxidant effect. Dept of pharmacology, P.R.R.M college of pharmacy,kadapaPage 1

Friday, September 20, 2019

Essay --

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak in Cupertino, California founded Apple Inc. in 1976 (Glen Sanford 1996). The two first just created Apple Computers in the beginning and as their company became more successful, they branched out to other types of electronics such as laptops, various musical devices, computer software, and e-book compatible machines. Apple Inc was started because both Jobs and Wozniak had always been interested in electronics throughout their lives. Wozniak was part of the creation since he was interested in computer-design. Jobs was the one who encouraged Wozniak to sell the computer to see what would happen. On April 1, 1976 the first Apple Computer was created. The organizational chart of Apple Inc. includes three key elements which are centralization, span of control, and departmentalization. Centralization is defined as the foundation of power and control which in this case is the CEO of the company, Timothy D. Cook. The next part of the organizational chart is the span of control; it refers to the amount of people a manager overlooks (BUSN 235). Since Apple Inc. is a rather large corporation there are numerous managers who overlook lower-ranking employees in the office. There is not a specified amount of employees that are assigned to one particular manager. It is based on what the strengths and weaknesses are of the manager and subordinates, the workload, as well as the location of the staff members (235). The last part of the organizational chart is departmentalization; the breakdown of employees into rational groups such as functional, product, and geographical, customer, and process (235). The ones that apply to Apple is functional, product, and geographical. Functional departmentalization involves separat... and they would not have been prepared for it. Also, to stay on top, companies must have to have a secure global database and Apple does not. Their jobs are mostly concentrated in the United States and then the parts to make the products are made and constructed overseas. Since I could not find a definitive mission statement, they will eventually have one set instead of having a list of achievements passing as their mission statement. A recommendation I would give to Apple is to create products that are cheaper because then more products would be sold. Another recommendation would be to construct offices that are around the world making products that are related to that particular country’s needs and satisfaction. I also agree with Shaughnessy about making Apple’s product market more elaborate and varied as well as to focus on the future instead of in the present.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Free Essays - Bitter Reality in Landscape for a Good Woman :: Landscape for a Good Woman Essays

Bitter Reality in Landscape for a Good Woman "For my mother, the time of my childhood was the place where the fairly tales failed." (47) The loss of dreams for Edna has resulted in a loss of dreams and fantasy world for her children. The focus on the little mermaid is appropriate. Just as Edna makes the two girls into the tragic figure of the little mermaid by blaming their father for leaving/not leaving them, Edna continually makes her children into either the tragic figures or the villain by blaming them for her shattered dreams. In actuality, she is the pathetic tragic figure, unable to see how her children have helped her financially. She takes her disappointments and failed dreams and puts them onto the girls, as though it is their fault. Simply due to their existence, Edna often seems annoyed with the existence of her daughters. Kay's realization of this fact so early in life is the most distressing part of her story. Bearing the weight of this burden takes away the possibility of the children having dreams and fantasies of their own. Their awareness of this bitter reality makes it truly amazing that she titles this story Landscape for a Good Woman. Both middle and upper class mothers have certainly heard the message throughout their lives that their responsibility is in the caring for and nurturing of their children. This certainly leads to a multitude of tasks above and beyond clothing and feeding, which often result in a loss of freedom for the mother and a sense of enslavement. Breaking out of this pattern which has been expected of women and mothers in particular has been a goal for women for many decades. Being raised in a harsh environment has resulted in Edna naturally having an outlook on life that is quite different from the standard upper middle class belief of the mother being all sacrificing for her children. The emotional ties between mother and child seem to be on the back burner while more immediate needs are tended to. Edna's standards of what it means to be a good mother are entirely different from those of someone from a different class. She denies the upper-class role and defines motherhood in the only way sh e is capable of doing so, and is not damned by those around her for the way she raises her children.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

John Paul Stevens: Biography :: essays research papers

John Paul Stevens: Biography John Paul Stevens, the 101st Justice to serve on the supreme court of the United States, and the first appointed by President Gerald R. Ford. John Paul Stevens became a member of the high court in December of 1975. Stevens, a middle aged man, with a reputation as a sharp-minded, hardworking lawyer, and first rate judge was given the highest evaluation from the American Bar Association committee that examined his record.  ³A superb judicial craftsman ² and a Judge ¹s judge, ² are two of the praises that Stevens has received from the United States Court of Appeals.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Stevens was voted into the supreme court with a vote of 98-0. In that time, Stevens was considered by the press, to be a moderate or moderate conservative in his legal thinking, and would take sides with other justices Powell, Stewart, and White. John Paul was born on Apr. 20, 1920. Stevens, the youngest out of 4 sons, Stevens was also considered to be the smartest of the 4 . At the age of six, his brother Ernest Stevens noted to a New York Post reporter,  ³I guess we always knew he was going to make something of himself. He was always awfully smart....When John was six, he could play better bridge then most adults today> ²   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Stevens attended the University of Chicago High School, and then later went to the University its self. In 1941, he left the University with a Phi Betta Kappa key, and a B.A. degree. He joined the navy, after the U.S entered World War 2. Stevens was stationed in Washington D.C, as a intelligence officer on the staff of admiral Chester W. Nimitz. He worked with a group assigned to break Japanese codes. for doing this, he was awarded the Bronze Star. After he returned to Chicago, (at the end of the war) he enrolled himself into Northwestern University School of Law to earn his J.D. degree, where he graduated first in his class. Not long after that, he was admitted into the Order of the Coif and the Phi Delta Phi law society.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  From 1947 to 48, Stevens spent the year as a clerk to supreme court justice Wiley Rutledge. After that, he joined his first law firm, Poppenhausen, Johnston, Thompson & Raymond. A Chicago based firm, that he was inducted to as an Associate.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This was in 1948. With expert guidance from a Senior in the firm,

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

A Study on Workplace Stress Among Women Working

A STUDY ON WORKPLACE STRESS AMONG WOMEN WORKING IN BANKING INDUSTRY By ASSISTANT PROFESSOR: CHARU MODI ABSTRACT Women in India have served a lot after independence. From just a experienced homemaker, women today have gained skills and potential of not just being a homemaker but being at parity with their male counterpart. Moreover, varying roles of working women, they have preserved the conventional work culture of household. Now a day the companies are thriving towards high rate that the women have to work for longer hours to sustain the standard of living and accomplish their basic needs.In spite of having the recent technologies and services, women feel to be work loaded and stressed. The abstract literature on stress recommends that working women are lying on to the same face stressors practiced by working men. So far, women are also confronting with possibly exceptional stressors such as inequality, social disconnection, and work/home classes. Stress arises because of many cause s which are emphasized in the research paper. The research paper also contains reasons of stress and how to ease the stress and rise above such problems by the working women at their workplace.KEYWORDS: Workplace, Stress, Working Women. INTRODUCTION Know About Stress Stress is a mood that is formed when we respond to particular events. It is the body's manner of growing to a challenge and getting ready to meet a strong situation with focal point, power, energy, and sensitive alertness. [9] Stress is a normal physical reaction to actions that make you feel endanger and disturb your balance in some way. Fortunately, research shows that lifestyles vary and stress-reduction techniques can facilitate people learn to cope up with stress. 1] Stress refers to the tension from the argument between external environment and internal environment, guiding towards emotional and bodily pressure. [9] In this fast moving world, it is not viable to live without stress, whether it is a student or work ing women. There is both constructive and destructive stress, depending on each individual’s exclusive observation of the force between the two factors. Not all stress is terrible. For instance, constructive stress, also known as eustress, [17] can assist a person to perform a task at best efficacy and effectiveness.Therefore, it is clear that some form of constructive stress can adjoin more shades and enthusiasm to lives. The presence of a target, for example, can drive to make the most of the moment pleasurable and generate enhanced value. It is considerable to keep this in mind, as stress management signify to use stress to our benefit, and not on eliminating the occurrence of stress in our lives. [8] I. 4. Present Status Psychological Well Being The present status of women in the current working environment can be demonstrated using some current data on the working women culture. [11] FIG 1. PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL BEINGSource [11] DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRESS: External and Inter nal Stressors [1] People can get known with stress from outer or inner causes. * Outer stressors include adverse physical state or distressing psychological atmosphere (such as poor working conditions or unpleasant relationships). [9] * Inner stressors can also be physical (viruses and other diseases, irritation) or psychosomatic (such as deep worry about a destructive event that may or may not occur). [9] * Severe or Unrelieved Stress Stressors can also be defined as temporary (severe) or lasting (unrelieved). Severe Stress.Severe stress is the reaction to an instantaneous threat, usually known as the fight response. The threat can be any circumstances that are supposed, even subconsciously or incorrectly, as a threat. Common severe stressors include: * Noise (which can cause a stress answer even during sleep) * Crowding * Isolation * Starvation * Danger * Illness * Hi-tech equipment effects (playing videotape ,playoffs, regularly buzzing mobile phones) * Visualizing the threat or detection of a precarious incident Under most conditions, once the severe threat has agreed, stages of stress hormones come back to normal.This is known as the repose reaction. Unrelieved Stress. Often, up to date life poses ongoing stressful conditions that are not short-lived. The recommendation to take action (to fight or flee) must thus be cautiously handled. Stress, after that, turns into unrelieved. Common unrelieved stressors contain: * Ongoing extremely pressured work * Long-term relationship problems * Lonesomeness * Constant financial worries WORK PLACE STRESS: Stress at work is quite a new perceptible fact of contemporary lifestyles. Occupational stress adds a load to physical health.Work related stress in the life of controlled workers, thus, have an effect on the wellbeing of organizations. Stress, either fast or steady, can bring risky body-mind disorders. Instant disorders such as nervousness attacks, worry, sleeplessness, tenseness and muscle pain can all result in u nrelieved health problems. It has an effect on immune system, cardiovascular and nervous systems and direct individuals to regular addictions. Like â€Å"stress reactions†, â€Å"relaxation responses† and stress management techniques are some of the important built-in response systems.Unfortunately, at present, don't get peaceful and calming situations without asking. For relaxation one has to struggle to create such circumstances. [19] This study is carried out to investigate that how much the women workforce of the banks are strained and how do the pressure of work influence their occupation life, societal life, productivity etc. In order to do so a sample of 10 women employees are selected from each of the three banks for the research of workplace stress among them. Symptoms of Work StressIt is no surreptitious that stress and associated disarray is being considered as generally regular cause of employee disability. Managing of workplace stress is leadership account ability. Good leaders who are familiar with the symptoms of stress can manage situations to create more pleasing workplaces and to improve both efficiency and the bottom line. Corporate women who have served in all conditions distinguish stress when they monitor symptoms such as: [7] * Nervousness * Indecisiveness * Petulance * Complaining * Forgetfulness Loss of self confidence * Sleeplessness * Physical tiredness WORKING WOMEN: This is the fresh generation of women, who needs to chase their dream career. But this life is not a couch of roses for everyone. Waken up at sharp 6 in the morning after retiring to bed late at night, crackling up an delicious breakfast for each one while getting the children all dress up for school, taking care of the sundry house needs that require her consideration that's the average working woman's home schedule for all. Things are not easy for her on the work frontage either.The collective-roles that women are have to play these days, bring about ener gy leak both at the bodily as well as mental level. [16] II. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The study on the workplace stress among women is conducted with the following objectives: * To determine the major causes of workplace stress. * To find the steps to reduce work place stress among women. * To find the measures to reduce workplace stress. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The questionnaires were filled by 30 women those who are working in three major Banks of Bhopal i. e. Axis Bank, HDFC Bank and ICICI Bank, so the reach of sample findings was less. 0 women employees of different designations filled the questionnaires. Due to this the opinion of employees differs as they are from different levels/designation. Data are collected from various sources, current articles like from online services, the Internet, and public libraries. The research describes the factors causing stress in the workplace and its impact on women. An effective method of coping with stress is given, but limited to ones exa mined in the primary and secondary resources. LITERATURE REVIEW Women and Workplace Stress: WOMEN ACCOUNTABILITYStress at work, the stress of lifting up children, the stresses that come with growing old parents, some of these circumstances could offer a fairly high sum of stress [12]. When women are faced with collective roles, all of which carry serious demands, they face stages of stress that are high enough to add to fitness problem, neglected work, and a reduced ability to obtain on additional. ACCOUNTABILITY AT OFFICE ACCOUNTABILITY AT HOME Source: [5] An environment with little flexibility or option would be a bigger risk of agony than an atmosphere of no-voice for a working woman.Interestingly, women’s stress matters do not deviate considerably. Women are all-rounder by character and include responsibilities inside responsibilities. [3] Job, relations and dwelling are not detached and the subjects around balance surmount in spite of working for yourself or someone else . The new study from University of Melbourne has publicized that almost 1 in every 5 Victorians working women undergo depression[23] that can be attributed to job stress and more than one in eight or 13 per cent of the working men with depression have trouble due to job stress. 3] The literature on work-related stress has made known many different courses of job related stressors and linked them to such matters as job pleasure and worker yield (Beehr & Bhaget, 1985) [6]. One of the major causes of workplace stress is whether the person is satisfied with the job or not. Many researchers found that job related stress issues are related to role ambiguity, role conflict, employee performance and satisfaction, over work load, need for achievement and organizational effectiveness.In 1976 Research [6] conducted in the financial services sector recognized that stress can also increase the probability of errors and arguments as workers cut corners to achieve targets – 81% believe irri tation in the workplace has pessimistic effect on spirits, 74% are less dynamic when in a bad frame of mind, and 15% work slower (in fear of making a mistake) when their boss is angry. Fear of aggression is often on the minds of individuals who handle cash on a regular basis, and can be a major cause of mental and physical distress (Violence and stress in financial services, 2003).A survey of 1,299 employees from 37 organizations [6] recognized ten causes as the more important providers to employee stress. These were Employees not being free to converse with one another, individual disagreements on the job, Employees not being given charge over their work, insufficient employment or budget, Management and workers not talking frankly, Management supposed as being uncooperative, below average unwell and holiday benefit, lessening in employees profit, Lack of gratitude or return for doing a good job.In one more research â€Å"Managing Stress at Work† by Kate Jenkins conducted in 2001 [6] drew number of factors which add to stress in work places, which are people are working longer hours, taking shorter or no breaks, with increase growth in IT and globalization, decrease in spare time and less sleep and there are more time and travel pressures. (Jenkins, 2001) [6] . Work stress sometimes affects organization by: * Increased rate of absenteeism. * Decreasing rate of dedication to work. * Increasing rate of employees return. * Increasing rate of grievances from clients and customers. Increasing rate of insecure working exercise. * Negatively affecting staff recruitment. [6] With the rapid progression of technology, the rate of work load has increased and thus the stress among working women. To some extent there is the fright from being economized in awful times, leading to better job uncertainty on the part of those who stay [21]. Unquestionably, work-related stress is one of the most frequently quoted stressors faced by persons all over the world. The remark s reported by Lundberg offer some descriptions for why Luecken et l originate that women working in clerical and customer service place who had children at home reported greater than before strain at home, but no increase in strain on the job. [2] While some stress is good for inspiration and growing competence, stress after a limit can result in depressing crash such as reduced efficiency and effectiveness. Most of the people are feeling secluded and upset at work, and this has resulted to better work-related stress. Consulting experts and professionals are being consulted on ways to raise link and inspiration of their employees.Few companies arrange parties and make their workforce feel appreciated at work. These are method to encourage employees and assist them to sense protected at their jobs, interpret into greater yield. On the other hand, not all companies have such method in place. Figure 2 : Model Of Causes And Consequences Of Work-Related Stress * Source: [14] RESEARCH MET HODOLOGY III. Research Design: This study includes exploratory research on the concerned areas relating to working women and the stress levels that are constantly being felt by them at their workplace.I have tried to highlight the situation in context of such problem and tried to suggest some of them for correcting the situation. IV. Data Collection: primary Data was collected with the help of self-administered questionnaire which includes 15 items. Secondary data was gathered from newspapers, magazines and online sources such as websites. Some analytical graphs were also collected to support the research objectives. VI. Sample Size: I have taken the sample of 30 women employees from three different private banks of Bhopal named ICICI Bank, HDFC Bank, AXIS Bank.DISCUSSION & FINDINGS: The Major Causes of Work Place Stress among women are: In the Modern times stresses can take the form of financial needs, or emotional disturbance. Contest at work and an increased workload are also the root cause of greater levels of stress. The stress can be identified by the symptoms as mental symptoms usually experienced include sleeplessness, headaches and an incapability to focus. Physical symptoms like heart palpitations, breathlessness, excessive sweating and stomach-aches.Reasons for stress are? There are many different reasons of stress which are also known as stressors, like Common lifestyle stressors include performance, intimidation, and demise stressors. Performance stressors are generated when a person is placed in a state where she feels a need to shine. This could be during performance evaluation, lunch with the boss, or delivering a speech. Threat stressors occur usually when the present situation poses a risky threat, such as a monetary recession, or from a misfortune.Last but not least, demise stressors take place when there is a feeling of loss such as the fear of losing a loved one, or any other loss. Therefore, there are a variety of stressors, and even more diverse methods and ways of handling with pressure and turning it to our own advantages. The causes which are faced mostly by working women at their workplace in my study at Bank are: * Extended working hours * Harder to balance work and home demands * Under utilization of skills * Unreasonable demands for performance[17] * Underpaid job * Multiple tasks at work Deficient of maintaining interpersonal communication between the employer and the women employees. [15] * Deficient of maintaining interpersonal relationship among the women employees * The fright of losing one's work * Minimum time left to spend with the family [15] * Treated substandard to your male contemporaries. [1] * Experiencing sexually nagging funny story from your superior and male contemporaries. [4] * Very few of the women employees feel that they are suffering from depression while most of the employees experience that that they are liberated from the despair.Most of the women employees worry about their contem poraries view about them whereas hardly any of the women employees are not concerned with the view about their colleague. Most of the women workforce of the bank talk about their difficulty and share their opinion with their other half or associates or others while very few of the women employees are not worried with it. Major part of the women employees job above 8 hours which is the starting point of the stress while few of the women employees don’t work for more than 8 hours.Nearly 50% of the female employee spent regular time on leisure activities which assists them to stay stress free while 3/4th of the women employees don’t do that. Nearly half of the women employees find their social life to be even-handed whereas 2/5th of the women employees don’t have their social life balanced. Very few of the women employees remain silent. Most of the women employees fright the value of performance being offered by them whereas 15 % of the women employees don’t fear the quality of their work. Major part of the sample i. e. round 70 % women workforce try to find the key of their stress while 30% of them do not find any solution. 45% of the women employees try traditional exercises like meditation, naturopathy, yoga and other ancient medicinal methods to decrease their stress whereas 55 % of the women employees use other techniques to reduce stress like resorting to pastime, holiday. After analyzing the data of all the three banks, it is seen that the women employees working in AXIS bank are less stressed out when compared to other banks. It can be for the reason that it’s a brand name and believe in teamwork as their core values.Steps To ease from Work Place Stress among Women: Management of Stress is the requirement of the hour. Though hard we try to go ahead of a stress situation, life appears to discover new behaviour of stressing us out and resulting with nervousness attacks. [18] Furthermore, be it our nervousness, mind-body ti redness or our erring outlooks, we tend to ignore causes of stress and the circumstances generated by those. In such disconcerting instants we often do not recall that stressors, if not avoidable, are reasonably manageable and treatable. [10] Unfortunately, today, they do not get peaceful and soothing situations without requesting.To be stress-free one has to struggle to make such situations. The suggestions range from individually focused actions to broad based organizational policy changes. These include the following: * â€Å"Just smile away and forget everything† An employee of HDFC Bank * â€Å"Talking to family members ,loved ones, Watching TV or listening good music, Going for a walk or long drive† An employee of HDFC Bank * â€Å"Working in environment benefits, lot of optimistic approach. Optimistic approach is only that reduces stress and achieves triumph. † AXIS Bank employee. â€Å"Adjust with others, Find and spend time to go to temple, pray and ta lk to GOD, Study novels, All are the child of the supreme GOD† An employee of AXIS Bank * â€Å"We should do such actions from which we get pleasure and also make people happy. Share your moments of life with your close friends and relatives. † An employee of ICICI Bank. * Provide day care and substitute work preparation as resources for preventing stress. * Provide more job elasticity for women to better manage work home clashes. [22] * Deal with Finances and Treat physically in spa, massage centres in weekends. Get Help by a mate or servant so that time could be spent with family. [22] * Cook if you like it and serve by your hand to family members. [22] * Dropping / Picking up Kids from School in your leave days and then go for a little walk. [22] * When stressed at work for deadlines or otherwise, give priority to your â€Å"me† time first and maintaining home comes second. [13,20] CONCLUSION: In recent years majority of the women discovered that their stress was essentially due to their idleness and also they were happy with fewer responsibilities.Lack of loving behavior from their colleagues, scolding from boss, more working hours, under utilization of skill sets was reported as cause of stress always by maximum percentage of the women. Higher percentage of the respondent experienced stress always because of lack of their involvement in decision making in their organization that reduced their responsibilities on their shoulder and the participatory model followed in their organizational set up enhanced their responsibilities to the point of exhaustion. As women, they need to acknowledge what they have and can do for them to reduce stress.All must remember that old saying, if you don’t look after yourself, no one else will look after you. Honour yourself! SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK I know that the current level of research may not reveal the exact parameters of stress regarding the causes and suggestions. Therefore, exhaustive researc h shall be carried out in future research work in this particular field. REFERENCES: 1. Brief, A. P. , ; Aldage, R. J. (1998). The self in work organizations: A conceptual Review. Academic of Management Review, 6, 75-88. 2. C. Light Kathleen , â€Å"Psychosomatic Medicine 59:360-361 (1997) 0033-31, Editorial Comment 3.NALAG Centre for Loss ; Grief  © 2008 PRM 003. 1 The Bereavement Buddy Version 1. 1 Last Updated 1 February 2009, pp 1 4. Long C. Bonita,† ERIC Digest† EDO-CG-95-53 5. Pathak Sonal, 2. Dr. Sarin Anil, â€Å"IJMBS Vol. 1, Issue 3, September 2011†,pp 66 6. Rehman Hina, â€Å" Literature Review†, International Review Of Business Research Papers Vol 4 No. 4 Aug – Sept 2008, Pp. 164-166 7. Richardson, A. M. , Burke, R. J. , ; Leiter, M. P. (1992). Occupational demands, psychological burnout and anxiety among hospital personnel in Norway. Anxiety, stress and coping. An international Journal, 5, 55-68. 8. Organizational Behaviour by V.G. Go ndalkar, pp 177-179 9. Stephen P. Robbins ,Timothy A. Judge, Seema Sanghi, Organizational Behavior, 13th Edition, pp 700-703 10. Stein, Franklin, â€Å"Occupational Stress, Relaxation Therapies, Exercise, and Biofeedback†, Psychological Therapy:    A Holistic Approach, Second Edition, 2001, pp. 235-245. 11. Tripathi Parul , Bhattacharjee Sandeep â€Å"Present Status†, Zenith International Journal Of Multidisciplinary Research Vol. 2 Issue 2, February 2012, Pp. 3 12. University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (November, 2007) . â€Å"Brain Imaging Shows How Men And Women Cope Differently Under Stress: Science Daily†. Online] Available: http://www. sciencedaily. com 13. â€Å"Women suffer more stress at work â€Å"TNN Jul 22, 2010, 14. European foundation for the improvement of living and working conditions 2007(Adapted from Kompier and Marcelissen, 1990) 15. Irene Houtman, Karin Jettingh off, Raising Awareness of Stress at Work in Developing Countries, A m odern hazard in a traditional working environment, Advice to employers and worker representatives, Protecting Workers' Health Series No. 6, pp 17-18 16. http://mm. bharatmatrimony. com/featured-story/288-stress-and-the-working-women

Monday, September 16, 2019

Rural vs. Country Living

Sean Stafford 11/11/12 Living Urban Vs. Rural The on-going debate of living in the city vs. country is very controversial in many people’s eyes but, the city has much more to offer economically, socially and in many other ways more convenient. Being able to meet your needs conveniently and to travel in a car less is what makes the city a lot easier to live in. Therefore, Living in the city is much more beneficial than living in the rural areas.Being able to walk around different places that offer different things to meet your needs specifically is something we could dream of, well in the setting of a city you are able to virtually walk anywhere and either takes a metro or taxi and you will arrive at your destination quicker than ever. Living in the city brings a sort of social structure in a way because when you live in the Country your nearest neighbor may be a mile away. There may be times when you won’t see another human being for days unless you go somewhere off of your property.And f you so much as run out of milk it means a trip in the car. Mechanics and most services are not close It is not easy if your car breaks down and your nearest mechanic is 30 miles away. Secondly, there are many kind of public transport such as train, tram, bus, taxi in the city and there are many streets. On the other hands, in the country they do not have many streets so therefore making the city transport system more complex but in a better way.Again the convenience in the city is better than the convenience in the country. It is easy to make more friends because people living in a city are more friendly and happier with their friends. On the other hand, in the country people are less open minded to make friends with someone they have never met. Another factor that has to do with the well being of a person is getting sick, and health in the city is better than in the country, In city there are many hospitals. Lastly,

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Flash On Mobile Phones

Introduction:The basic manner of communicating in these yearss is MOBILE and it has become a demand of common adult male these yearss because of its variable characteristics and the use rate of this medium has increased quickly as observed from past few old ages. There are many companies in the market that design and come up with new engineerings that could be induced into these appliances covering all the characteristics like Bluetooth connectivity, WLAN and many other characteristics and these yearss the Mobiles are designed to vie with computing machines there are few Mobiles in the market that could be used as a pocket Personal computer every bit good in this ways there are many scopes and types of Mobiles that could fit to the demands of persons. The characteristics which are at that place in the nomadic phones are being used by the corporate companies likevideocool.comwhich are seeking to spread out their concern by marketing their merchandises over these nomadic phones.Flash Lite:Flash lite is the package version which has been created and developed by Macromedia specifically for usage on nomadic devices. The flash lite package came into being and was created in the twelvemonth 2003 by macromedia It ‘s fundamentally called as an adobe flash and it is a package being used for the assorted Mobile and consumer applications which benefits ‘ the maker and developers. The first version of flash lite which has been launched is Flash Lite 1.0 and it was released in February 2003 ab initio it was designed merely for few nomadic French telephones like â€Å"NTT DoC0Mo 505i† in Japan at that clip it was designed to set brassy content on to nomadic phones so that it would be utile in selling.Why Use Flash On Mobile Phones? :Flash is used in nomadic phones to develop rich, originative artworks which are synergistic with users and which are user friendly.The applications which are developed by utilizing flash are easy to market and it takes less clip to market them and even the cost involved in making and developing them is even less compared to that of creative activity of same applications in either JAVA or C++ . One of the major advantage of the use of Flash platform on a P.C is the 1 million + developing group who have the experience of making and developing games, lifes and e-learning applications. The same sort of content is besides required for the nomadic market so it is easy for a brassy developer to utilize the same accomplishment set used in P.C to utilize in Mobiles in order to develop content for nomadic devices. As with Flash on the desktop, Flash Lite besides gives user the power to make content of their ain wish The lone restriction is one ‘s ain creativeness.Versions of Flash:Since flash has been released there have been many developments and every clip new versions of flash have been released. * Flash Lite1.1whichsupports flash4 ‘s Action Script. * Flash Lite2.0, which is based on Flash Player7, and it supports the new action book of Flash7 * Flash Lite3is developed based on Flash8. In the procedure of making a promo for thevideocool.comthe nomadic phones we have used the brassy lite package as an of import toll which is used by the systems to supply the connexion between the many persons or multiple applications such as pictures and YouTube. By utilizing the flashlite we can play the online picture without holding any other new participants because of this grounds we can see that the stigmatization chances can be increased. Flashlite is package which could every bit vie with the J2ME and brew flashlite is a engineering which us non same as the Mobile operating system where as in it is the engineering by utilizing which we can develop the applications that could be seen on the nomadic operating system. Flashlite is a development that could replace the j2me or that could be seen on the top of Java ME. By utilizing flashlite could do the package proving truly easy when compared with the other systems In the flashlite the excess artworks and lifes could be used without losing the in writing quality. Furthermore brassy lite is more flexible and can even back up pictures which are of higher quality, flash is easy to work on as it deals with the artworks sideKeies used:* HOME-this key is used to voyage to the chief bill of fare. * NEXT-this is used to voyage to the following page. * MOVIES-once we click on this it automatically displays the list of pictures which are available to be viewed. * SONGS-after clicking on this a list of vocals which are available is displayed. * SPORTS-used to see pictures of athleticss.Report on market research & A ; analysis:As seen above we see that the use of flashlite is really high on the latest nomadic phones and when market study is done are by comparing the present state of affairs we can calculate that within two more old ages at that place would be developing application utilizing the flashlite package. The chief advantage of utilizing brassy lite is that it is really simple to utilize and easy in application and even a little child can shop the files which are available on the web site. As we know that YouTube pictures can be watched on the nomadic phones by diminishing the declaration of picture, so this could be greater accomplishment of package and there could be a development on this facet in close hereafter and picture which are of higher quality can besides be played in nomadic phones. More over due to the initiation of WLAN into the Mobiles through which web browse is made easy, and we can link to internet wherever it is possible to link i.e in hot spots. There are chiefly two package ‘s which are used to implement artworks on nomadic phones they are * Flash Lite * J2ME ( JAVA ) Flash lite has many versions the version which we are utilizing isFL CS4Professional which is the latest version released in the flash light application. In this version there are many types of devices i.e copycats which are used to bring forth our end product or watch the picture which are on the web site, nowadays about all of the nomadic devices support flash picture. Flash lite is really simple to plan and is user friendly and.Generally when J2ME and flashlite compared flashlite has an advantage with all benefits of array, maps, twins and text field etc.there would be speedy developments on this application utilizing brassy IDE. In future, there would be different development on vector based artworks life and artworks which would do flashlite as the best package in the close hereafter through its traveling good now. But in general people use to prefer a flash participant to play video files alternatively of Java as in Java cryptography is more complicated when compared to blink as it uses artworks instead than complicated cryptography. Microsoft is working on â€Å"SILVERLIGHT† , a tool similar to Adobe ‘s Flash, which should finally go compatible with devices running on its Windows Mobile platform. Nokia had earlier announced that it is working on doing â€Å"SILVERLIGHT† compatible with Symbian S60, a platform on which the seller ‘s smart phones work.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Effects of Values on Economics Essay

Values can be described as beliefs that people deeply hold to. They guide the decisions and behaviors of these people. They are â€Å"located† deeply within the subconscious and are integrated into every area of everyday living. People use values to choose their behaviors, employments, friends, entertainment and sports among others. Values are assimilated to people especially when they are still young. They range from teachers, parents, coaches and clergy to even peers. Values assimilated during the early years of a person’s life operate subconsciously as a basis for making decisions, choices and behaviors (Lopper, 2007). On the other hand, economics can be defined as a social science that deals with production, distribution and the consumption of services and goods and their management (Princeton, 2006). This research paper is aimed at examining the role of values on economics. Religion and Economics Many have for a long time regarded religion and economics as separate as cheese and chalk despite the fact that Adam Smith in his 1776 book The Wealth of Nations touched on religion (Weber, 2004). Many economics regard religion as a dark world which is unreachable through their analytical tools. It should be noted that religion is such a wide field that economics cannot ignore and as years erupts the gap between the two fields have gradually been reduced. This was initiated by an economist from the University of Chicago, Gary Becker who has already won a Nobel price for his efforts to applying economics in studying drugs, family interactions and crime (Weber, 2004). Though economics treat some theological questions such as the nature of God as if they were lepers, they have of late studied the earthly subjects of how people â€Å"sell† and â€Å"buy† services and goods, whether spiritual or material, that is provided by the religion. More study and research on religion have been undertaken after the attack of the United States on September eleven by the militant Islamic groups. Economics professor, Laurent Lannaccone from George Mason University in his statement agreed that for a long time the economists had ignored religion because of the belief that it would be overtaken by the ever-growing secularization; later however, many have realized that religion is also a powerful force in the modern society (Weber, 2004). Of late, another concept â€Å"the economics of religion† has been framed that is founded on the belief that human beings are rational in choices about their religion in the same way they are in economics, for example buying a good. â€Å"Producers† of mosques, temples, synagogues and churches compete for members (who are in this case their customers) and this they do by drawing those who are secular or members of other congregations (Weber, 2004). Effects of religion on the economy Religious rituals and beliefs have distinct effects on the performance of an economy. Preliminary results from researches conducted have shown that that there are negative effects resulting from participating in religious rituals but those on religious beliefs have shown positive effects (Bowman, 2004). It has been argued that religion has both positive and negative effects on the economy. Some have argued that religion can bring material advantages with Max Weber arguing that the work ethics by the Protestants was the cause of the prosperity in Europe. Recently, a professor at Harvard, Robert Barro is working towards examining the links between economic growth and religion (Bowman, 2004). In his studies, he concludes that at the microeconomic level, religious participation has been associated with lowered rates of drug abuse, crime and other vices. Another economist from Harvard, Richard Freeman concluded in his studies that those black youths who go to church were likely to abstain from committing crimes and using drugs as well as having a higher tendency of attending schools (Bowman, 2004). However, in economic terms and richness, no quantitative research has proved that religion has any direct effect on the income and if any by what level. This has been hindered by the difficulty present in dividing the cause and the effect. Even if the church goers may be reported as richer, there may not be any tangible proof that it is the religion that made them richer because it is possible that it is the richer people who may be likely to go to church or become generally religious. Unrelated traits for example personal discipline or greater ambition may be the reason of one succeeding in his or her job and at the same time attend to their religious duties (Bowman, 2004). Mr. Gluber, states that one possible cause of religious people being rich is that as they attend either mosque, church or synagogue gatherings, this can yield â€Å"social capital† which is just web of relations that fosters trust. These relations are important as they allow business dealings and transactions between such people to become smoother and cheaper respectively. The other possible reason that is given is that those who are religious have better emotional and financial insurance. This is important because when they fall into an economic setback, they are able to recover more quickly because of the support from their fellow worshippers (Bowman, 2004). Mr. Gruber’s results also claim that religious people especially the church goers may become richer as attendance to places of worship may also lead to lesser chances of dropping from schools. Also religious groups have been known to support the education of their members by offering bursaries either directly to the students or to the schools that they manage (Bowman, 2004). Also, many religious groups have been known to motivate their members to work hard towards their success and this may be a contributing factor to their wealth increase. Religion also teaches on supernatural intervention in the members’ endeavors and this allows them to be focused on success than failure (Bowman, 2004). Negative relationship between religiosity and economics growth There are general negative effects in the relationship between religiosity and economic growth. One such is the fact that religious groups, especially Christianity, preach giving which is regarded as a factor that undermines investment which is a setback to economic growth. Another setback of religiosity to the economic growth is that it is accused of undermining the work ethics using its own teachings as a cover up. Many members of religious groups have been known to remain idle or being lazy and instead substitute work with their religious duties. It is also reported that many religious groups teach doctrines that oppose modern attitudes such as contraception technologies and market’s egalitarian repression (Bowman, 2004). On the other hand, economic development has got negative effects on religion with the studies showing that overall development (represented by per capita GDP reduces religiosity. The secularization thesis has shown that people tend to become less religious when income increases. They loose interest of attending religious meeting places and portraying their religious beliefs. Economic growth makes religion to be less considered in policy making, political process, and legal process and also in social programs such as friendships, marriages and colleagues (McClearly, 2008). Though Max Weber’s thesis â€Å"The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism† indicate that religion raise productivity for they mold individual characters such as work ethic, thrift and honesty, it also shows that it religious beliefs have a negative effects on economic development as increased attendance to their places of worship take more of their resources and time . The religious sector is also known to place restrictions on markets for insurance and credit (McCleary, 2008). The other negative effect of religion on economics is that it produces religious terrorism that has been as a result of income inequality and poverty. In contrast, research conducted by Alan Krueger shows that religious terrorists in most cases are well educated and not from poor background. Many religious terrorists view violence not a means but as an end to economic and political ends. They feel that they are destroying a system that they are not identified with (McCleary, 2008). Marx idea on religion According to Karl Max, religion is an expression of economic justice and material realities, meaning that problems in any given religion are also the problems in the society. Max referred to religion as a symptom and not a disease (Cline, 2009). He also claimed that religion has been used by the oppressors to encourage those who are exploited and poor. He stated that religion speaks contrary to what â€Å"is dignified in a human being by rendering them servile and more amenable to accepting the status quo†(Cline, 2009). He argued that religion is dependent on economics meaning that the actual doctrines of religion are irrelevant. Also religion is an illusion giving excuses and reasons so that it can keep the society to function as it is. â€Å"Much as capitalism takes our productive labor and alienates us from its value, religion takes our highest ideals and aspirations and alienates us from them, projecting them onto an alien and unknowable being called a god†(Cline, 2009). India- Caste system due to Hinduism Caste system is a religious ranking system in India of human groups that is based on occupation and hereditary factors. This system is very complex and has been known to have several setbacks. The members of these groups are restricted to their hereditary occupations. The Indian society is divided into four groups; Brahmas are from priestly families, the warrior and ruling class, Vaishyas are businessmen, farmers and traders. The laborers and peasants are the shudras while panchamas were the untouchable. The negative effects of the caste system are that some members of the community are discriminated based on their groups. However, due to higher education, globalization, economic growths and mingling with people from other communities, the India’s population is slowly deviating from the caste system. Even the government of India has decided to reserve some jobs for the members of the lower castes (FactsaboutIndia, 2008). Islamic Countries and Shariah Laws In the Islamic nations governed by the sharia laws, no interest is allowed to be charged on any loan that is given as it goes against the Koranic law against usury. In some countries such as Afghanistan, women are never allowed to wear high heel shoes as well as white socks, as the sharia considers them sexually luring. In the same nation, music is never allowed that includes cassettes in vehicles. Many forms of entertainments such as watching movies or plays are never allowed with women being prevented from occupying some professionals and occupations which, causes some to flee the country or commit suicide (Aluko, 1999). Men who do not have beard up to certain lengths are never allowed to have some jobs or allocated some contracts; this means that women do not benefit from any government contracts in Afghanistan. In such countries, Shariah views Islam as a philosophy of life, social order, a system of economic principle and a ruling order which all the Muslims must adhere to (Aluko, 1999). The ethics of Islamic economics rejects excessive concern for the accumulation of profits but more with acquisition of goods fulfilling social obligations to the society. The other characteristics of Shariah laws include tax discrimination on non Muslims so that they can be encouraged to become Muslims. On inheritance, the Koran states that brothers must get double of what their daughters get (Aluko, 1999). United States- Effects of Christian values In US, it has been noted that people have more consumer choice in exercising their religions than any other part of the economy. Churches function independently as contractors in the religious free market of the United States. In USA, Evangelical Protestantism is known for entrepreneurial development in the church structure in contrast to the Roman Catholic Church that follows the ecclesiastic polity (Sparks, 2007). The evangelical churches have their congregations or appointed boards have the final say on any matter such as the church budget. In some mega churches however, the pastor is seen as the Chief executive officer exercising high level authority. The churches in the United States are known to offer not only spiritual nourishment to their members, but also other products such as music and video tapes as well as books (Sparks, 2007). Sale of alcoholic products on Sundays has not been allowed in many cities of the United States as Sunday has been regarded as the day of worship for the Christians (Andre, 2009). Abortion Effects of Rights on Economics Freedom has been termed as the engine that pushes economic growth that is sustainable and allows all people to have increased prosperity. Economic freedom is basically ensuring that human rights are respected (Kim, 2007). Equality- Women Rights Promoting gender equality has been understood as an important part in an effective economic and human development strategy. Gender equality in education has positively been associated with economic development. Research previously done has shown that any nation that does not work towards the closing of gender gap in education will experience a fall in per capita income (Chen, 2004). In addition the report by the Arab human development team showed that lack of women empowerment has contributed to less human development in the Arabic regions. If women are enabled to acquire education for example through distant learning, it will allow them to participate in labour market while at their homes and this would in turn result in improving gender equality. It has been shown that nations in the sub Saharan Africa, South Asia, North Africa and Middle East has a greater gender disparity especially in education and if they could only close this gap, their per capita GDP can grow significantly per year (Chen, 2004). The reasons that are raised to prove these arguments are that educated women are often added to the labour market and this improves the economy of the country. The other reason is that educated women will improve the intellectual environment at home that in turn leads to a productive workforce thus economic growth (Chen, 2004). The proponents of slavery stated that they relied on servitude so that they can facilitate their need for labour. The labor population was decreasing and thus they believed that African slaves were efficient to fulfill their needs for laborers. When tobacco was discovered in 1600’s and became the main source of income for the colonialists, it called for more land and thus more laborers. Slave trade brought a great fortune to the colonialists; unfortunately, the profits obtained were used to get more slaves (Dodson, 2003) Spanish colonies- encomienda and repartamiento The encomienda was a labour system employed by the crown of Spain during its colonization in America. Some trustees and soldiers were allocated a specific number of natives whom they were supposed to teach Spanish and Catholic faith and in return receive tribute from the natives in form of labour or gold. This allowed the encomendero to take even the land that belonged to the natives (Answers Corporation, 2009). On the other hand, repartimiento was a system applied by Spanish colonialists on native population of America where the later was forced to perform some tasks for the former for a period of time in the year without any pay or for a low pay. This system led many natives to flee from their communities while other accepted to work and even signed contracts for the period that they were to work (Answers Corporation, 2009). A property right is the authority that allows one to determine how a resource should be used. All economic goods are protected by the property rights. Property rights have been confirmed to play a major role in the promotion of both political and economic development. Intellectual rights are mechanisms that facilitate innovation by giving the inventors monopoly of their discovery (Robin). CONCLUSION From the discussing, it is clear that different values have different effects on the economics. These values include the religious values which have been discussed with examples of the Shariah law, the caste system of India and Christianity in the United States of America. Other values discussed include those related to human rights such as women rights, slavery and property rights.It is vivid that different values have either positive or negative effects on economics or even both. REFERENCES Andre. (2009). Sunday alcohol sales; Fear versus the facts. Retrieved March 25, 2009, from http://www. peachpundit. com/2009/02/25/sunday-alcohol-sales-fear-versus-the-facts/ Aluko, S. A. (1999). The social and economic implications of Shariah law. Retrieved March 25, 2009, from http://www. dawodu. com/aluko1. htm Answers Corporation. (2009). Encomienda system. Retrieved March 25, 2009, from http://www. answers. com/topic/encomienda-system