Friday, May 31, 2019

Essay --

Damon PerezMrs. Mcgillivray8th GradeScience18 December 2013Incarceration is the movement of being sent to prison. The top 10 reasons pile are sent to prison are larceny, drug possession, public intoxication, fraud, theft, aggravated assault, armed robbery, DUI, homicide, and rape. Women are 20% of people arrested. About 15% of people that are arrested are released within 4 hours or less - and about 66% are released within 48 hours. Some people that are arrested are released on bond - 46%. Some people who are arrested are charged with felonies - 25%, the other people were charged with misdemeanor offenses - 75%. There are differences between prison, jail, and jejune detention. Prisons are operated by state governments and the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). They are designed to make water individuals convicted of crimes. People serving long sentences (over a year) go to prison. Jails are most often run by sheriffs and/or local governments. They are designed to see indiv iduals awaiting trial or are serving short sentences. People serving short sentences (a year or under) go to jail. A youth detention center, similarly known as a juvenile detention center or, known as juvie, is a secure residential facility for young people. They are called juvenile delinquents. They are waiting court hearings and/or placement in long-term care.( are approximately 1494 prisons in the United States. Jail is where people perform time for the bad stuff they did, a place where a person convicted of a crime is detained. Prison is a place for those convicted of serious crimes. Felony charges are much serious crimes that carry much higher jail time. Misdemeanor charges are still serious crimes just not as dangerous nor se... ...y will plan a hearing to think about the sentence at a later date. In most felony cases the judge waits for the results of a presentence report, prepared by the courts probation office, beforehand making the sentence. If t he defendant pleads not guilty, the judge will proceed to schedule a trial. People charged do not have to prove their innocence. Instead, the government must provide evidence to convince the jury of the persons guilt. The level of proof in a criminal trial is proof beyond a reasonable doubt, which means the evidence must be so strong that there is no logical doubt that the person charged connected the crime. (http//

Thursday, May 30, 2019

J. Robert Oppenheimer Essay -- biographies bio

There must be no barriers to freedom of inquiry. There is no baffle for dogma in science. The scientist is free, and must be free to ask any question, to doubt any assertion, to seek for any evidence, to correct any errors. Our political keep is also predicated on openness. We know that the only way to avoid error is to detect it and that the only way to detect it is to be free to inquire. And we know that as long as we are free to ask what we must, free to say what we think, free to think what we will, freedom tramp never be lost, and science can never regress. J. Robert Oppenheimer A man who is al almost synonymous with the development of the atomic bomb as well as with the conflicts between the desires of the government and the demands of the conscience, J. Robert Oppenheimer is one of the most influential physicists of our time. J. Robert Oppenheimer was born to a wealthy Jewish couple in New York in 1904. His father Julius Oppenheimer was a textile importer and his mother Ella Friedman was a painter. In his early years, he was interested in mineral collection and began to start sending letters to the New York Mineralogy Club. At age 12, the club asked him to present a paper unaware of his youth. He was successful in school, and his early education was done at the Ethical Culture School in New York until he graduated in 1921.After his high school education, a case of dysentery postponed his entrance into Harvard until 1922. He studied mostly math and science, showing a option for chemistry saying that it was at the heart of things. He also showed a great affinity for learning languages and throughout his life he would pick up a language quickly in order to read a text in its original form. Finally,... ...ed privileges. It quickly degenerated into humiliation of Oppenheimers stance on the development of the H-bomb as un-American. He was attacked for being soft on Communism. He made little effort to defend himself, seemingly uncaring as to his own fat e. In the end, the committee voted 4-1 against reinstating him, stating that he was a risk due to fundamental defects in his character.Oppenheimer returned to collegiate life, taking a post at Princeton. He spent most of the rest of his days in relative obscurity, publishing a series of articles on ethics and morality near the end of his life. He had seemed to lose his fire for scientific work with his denouncement. The scientific community was shocked and torn on what had happened to Oppenheimer, and he remains one of the most significant victims of McCarthyism. Oppenheimer succumbed to throat cancer in 1967.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Develop a Business Plan Before You Buy a Website :: Sell Websites Buy Websites

Develop a craft Plan Before You Buy a WebsiteReprinted with permission of VotanWeb.comIn new-fangled years, Ive written a number of worry plans based on ideas Ive had for various websites. Most of these ideas were small, but I learned a great deal fair(a) writing the plans. I didnt proceed with those websites because either the market or cash decrease wouldnt support them. However, the only way for me to know this was by writing the plans. end the initial plan for my current website was time-consuming. I spent about 40 hours over a three-week period researching and writing it. Its a living document, since I order it every month or two. Free Web resources, plus word-processing and Excel spreadsheet software, allowed me to create a unique plan. The resources I used included VotanWeb and the Small Business Administrations site. The business-planning software programs that provide templates to insert your information seemed cookie cutter and formulaic to me. They didnt seem to of fer anything that wasnt free on the Web. The first half of a business plan is geared towards developing and supporting a business strategy. A website can face serious competition if the business concept is not creative. I critically examined my market, industry, customers and competitors. I reviewed the benefits of my current merchandise and tied them to customer needs. I visited my competitors websites to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses and find opportunities they were neglecting. I asked myself Is there a street corner that allows me to compete less directly against similar websites? Can I use different sales or marketing pitches? Is there a secondary market that can help us grow? Can I position my websites in new ways that offer customers additional benefits?The Financial PictureA offset sheet shows a websites net worth and is prepared once annually. In my business plan, I also included a personal balance sheet that showed my personal financial commitment by documenting my own assets and liabilities.A cash-flow statement shows how much cash will be needed and when and where it will be generated. It examines cash and revenue sources, minus the businesss expenses and capital requirements (a cash-flow statement differs from a profit-and-loss statement because it doesnt include when the revenue is collected or expenses paid). I show my cash flow going forward on a 12-month basis. This allows me to see when my cash flow might not be adequate to meet expenses and pull back on spending until it builds up again.

kafka Essay -- essays research papers

Mistreatment from the 1800s is Still Reflected in Modern Day SocietyThe fathers explanations were to some extent the first pleasant news that Gregor got to discover since his imprisonment. (p. 1654) In the story The Metamorphosis, by Franz Kafka, the character Gregor undergoes a metamorphosis into an insect and experiences what its like to feel imprisoned and mistreated within his avow home. throughout the story he continuously is mistreated by his family and sadly still reflects modern day families and society. Gregor family consisted of his father, his mother and his sister Grete. Before Gregor had turn into an insect he was the main provider of income and covered all expenditures for his family. Gregor was the only person that worked in his family and was a traveling salesman. Therefore, his parents and sister stayed at home and did nothing while Gregor worked everyday. Kafka describes Gregors father as having an unsuccessful life and he had gr deliver very fat, becoming rather clumsy.(p. 1655). His father at one point owned his own business but it had collapsed five years earlier from the day of Gregors transformation. However his father still remained to have a strong sense for business. His mother was otiose and found to be less intelligent then the rest of the family. She also was not working. Kafka states, And perhaps the old mother go to work-she, who suffered from asthma, who found it strenuous just now walking through the apartment, and who spent every other day on the sofa grasping for air by the open window? (p.1655).His sister was seventeen, benevolent to Gregor, beautiful, and musical. She played the violin. Grete soon took over as head of the house hold when Gregor turned into an insect. With Gregors transformation thus brings about the problem of whos press release to now provide for the family. This problem then brings upon mistreatment towards Gregor. Many generation throughout the story he is forgotten about, attacked, and made to f eel dehumanized and no longish apart of the family. In the beginning of his transformation Grete is the only one who takes care of Gregor. She feeds him twice a day and tries to make sure his food is of his liking. His mother in the beginning seems to still care for him but however, cannot bear to look at him or enter the room. The fat... ...ought about others and truly cared about others happiness. However many times he felts pressured by his family to work and feels that helpless and guilty when he can no longer provide for his family. To me this is way he transforms, because he is so pressured he fears it so much that its almost like he willed it to happen. I feel this could have all been avoided. I feel that Gregor should have left his family and started his own life and paid for his own bills. His family did not appreciate him and all that he provided for them so there was no need to put himself under that kind of pressure.I felt The Metamorphosis, by Franz Kafka, proved to b e an excellent science fiction writer through the use of details. His many legs, wretchedly thin compared to his overall girth, danced unable to help before his eyes (p. 1641) this is just one of many example that Kafka uses detail to help the reader visualize Gregor as an insect.Overall this story provides ideas and activities of society during the easy 1800s and modern day life still today. Because of pressure from society and our families we tend to mistreat those around us.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Elements of Homers Odyssey in the Coen Brothers Oh Brother Where Art

The Coen Brothers Oh Brother Where Art Thou?, loosely based on Homers classic adventure The Odyssey, is a film amusingly make full with themes of symbolism similar to those found in Homers epic, while still maintaining a sense of originality and style that they have become so noneworthy for. An exciting and entertaining blend of high adventure, humour, and heartfelt emotion, at first glance, the film bargonly resembles Homers poem only certain elements are obvious, such as the main characters name and the three sirens by the river. However, a deeper and more intense analysis of the film and text exposes numerous, if not more subtle references.The adventures of the three main characters in the movie, Ulysses, Pete and Delmar include many encounters with characters similar to Homers Odyssey, such as the trio of Sirens, a Bible-salesman Cyclops, as well as other archetypes from southern folklore and pop culture such as the young blues musician, the Klan, and the infamous bank robbe r Baby demonstrate Nelson. However, the biggest parallel between both pieces might have to be the strik...

Elements of Homers Odyssey in the Coen Brothers Oh Brother Where Art

The Coen Brothers Oh Brother Where Art Thou?, loosely based on Homers classic adventure The Odyssey, is a film amusingly fill with themes of symbolism similar to those found in Homers epic, while still maintaining a sense of originality and style that they have become so far-famed for. An exciting and entertaining blend of high adventure, humour, and heartfelt emotion, at first glance, the film b atomic number 18ly resembles Homers poem only certain elements are obvious, such as the main characters name and the three sirens by the river. However, a deeper and more intense analysis of the film and text exposes numerous, if non more subtle references.The adventures of the three main characters in the movie, Ulysses, Pete and Delmar include many encounters with characters similar to Homers Odyssey, such as the trio of Sirens, a Bible-salesman Cyclops, as well as other archetypes from southern folklore and pop culture such as the young blues musician, the Klan, and the infamous bank robber Baby hardiness Nelson. However, the biggest parallel between both pieces might have to be the strik...

Monday, May 27, 2019

Comparison of Roman and American slavery Essay

Slavery is one of the most common entities between the Romans confederacy and the Western society in the late 1800s. Both civilizations have many differences and similarities between their views on bondage, treatments of the slaves, and economics of thraldom. Such similarities include the imprisonment of slaves, the cruel treatments towards slaves, and the legal status of slaves as their owners property. However, despite the many differences, thralldom between polar societies always has its differences. These differences include the rights of the slaves, the slaves origins, and the payment of the slaves. Through the comparison of slavery present in Western society of the later 1800s and Roman society, several astonishing similarities and differences become apparent, especially when considering the movie, Sparticus.The astonishing amount of similarities between the slavery in Roman society and the slavery in Western society show the great importance of slavery to ones populace. In both societys, the slave was the basic unit of society, for all of the agricultural market rested upon their shoulders. precisely as cotton was the staple crop of the United States, chaff was the fundamental crop in Roman society, both of which are cultivated by slaves. In both societies, owning a multitude of slaves showed ones favor up to(p) status, for if one owned numerous slaves, then they were considered wealthy.Additionally, the lower class looked down upon the slaves as lower individuals than themselves, treating them like animals through their constant beatings and tiresome work. This work that the slaves had to subscribe was similar in both societies, for they similarly had to work in the fields for long hours. A child born of a slave woman was a slave (the legal status of his father being irrelevant) and the property of the slave womans owner. Ultimately, the Roman and Western societys views and actions upon slaves were the same in several ways, yet there will alway s be differences between the two.The differences between the Roman and Western treatment and thoughts about slavery seem to be even more immense than the similarities, but you must keep in mind that the two societys thrived in completely assorted ageswith different circumstances. In Roman society, the slaves were all prisoners of war from various countries and races not just one race like the Western slavery. In United States, the slavery consisted of just about all Africa-American captives who didnt have any interference with their society before they were beginning to be imprisoned. Another difference is the ability for the Roman slaves to rebel with a large force, while the American slaves only tried to run away. The Roman slaves created large slave armies, while the American slaves only created the secret underground railroad. Just as the Romans gather together large quantities of slaves to create an army, Sparticus similarly was one of Romes great heroes who shows the similar ities and differences between Roman and Western slavery.In the movie, Sparticus, there are several events which allow the viewer to compare Roman slavery to that of Western slavery. In the movie, the slaves were paid small sums of money for their efforts, as seen when they are able to buy the several fleets of ships. However, in Western slavery, the slaves were seldom paid, because they were considered property of their owner. Furthermore, Roman slaves were trained in specific arts and crafts, such as the slave who Sparticus met that was a singer and magician.In Western society, on the other hand, the slaves mostly just cooked the meals and worked in the fields. However, the similarity between the two societys includes the abuse mat up by the slaves. In the movie, Sparticus was constantly hit with the wooden paddle and made to fight as a gladiator, just as the American slaves were whipped and hung by their washrag masters. The movie, Sparticus, is an excellent example of the treat ment and views of slavery in Roman society, all of which can be compared and contrasted to American slavery.There are several similarities and differences between the slavery present in Roman society and Western society. Just some of the similarities include the societys views on slavery, the treatments of the slaves, and economics of slavery. Several more differences arise, on the other hand, because of the vast time and cultural differences between these two civilizations. These differences include the rights of the slaves, the slaves origins, and the payment of the slaves. Through the comparison of slavery present in Romansociety and American society, several intriguing similarities and differences become apparent, especially when considering the movie, Sparticus.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Why Did Charles I Lose the Civil War

Why did Charles I lose the Civil War? The English Civil War was 1642-1651 and was a series of battles and political conspiracies between Oliver Cromwell, the temperer of Parliament and King Charles I the leader of the Royalists. The civil war set the supporters of King Charles I against the followers of Parliament, this resulted in the Parliaments victory and the Kings execution. Cromwells army was lead by Sir Thomas Fairfax who was one of the outstanding military commanders of the English Civil War.Fairfax is best remembered as the man who commanded the New Model Army at the conflict of Naseby in June 1645. Whereas, Charles army was lead by Prince Rupert who was the foremost Royalist military commander in the English Civil War. Prince Rupert was very much a sawhorse soldier and the Royalists may have baffled the war a lot sooner had it not been for his military ability. Both Parliament and the Royalists had armies with little or no military experience, although Fairfax and Prin ce Rupert could be classed as professional soldiers.Until Parliament brought in a new creation called the New Model Army which was a military unit of measurement that was used to transform the English Civil War and was based on a persons ability rather than their position within society, It was also better expert and well armed, making them more formid competent. The first proper use of this army was at the battle of Naseby. This was Parliaments turning point and after that King Charles was never fitted to raise an army strong enough to win.Some historians believe that this was the main reason for Parliament winning the civil war. It could be argued, however that one of the other reasons cited for Charles losing the war was the lack of money. This was because the nobles and landowners who had sided with him didnt have any money to give him. With the support of wealthy merchants and traders, the parliamentarians had steady flow of money.Something Charles lacked and because of the lack of money, the King couldnt buy new men and supplies for his army therefore the army was smaller and less equipped. One of the biggest mistakes that Charles made was leaving London at the beginning of the civil war. Consequently, Parliament took keep and Charles was not able to gain power again, although he tried. This was a big setback as it is hard to rule the country without controlling its capital.Ultimately, the Royalist forces were extinguished, they had run out of money, they had lost control of the capital and their barely trained, small army meant that they had lost the upper hand that they were dealt many times. Parliament however, was a stronger force and Parliaments control of the seas and richer areas of England, as well as their creation of a powerful, trained and disciplined New Model Army, meant that they had more power in the end. By Yasmin Rose 8z

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Readiness of Kindergarten Teachers along K-12 Curriculum Essay

One of the major reforms in our countrys informational system is Republic Act 10157, new(prenominal)wise know as The Kindergarten Education Law or the K to12 (K+12). This Law made the Kindergarten authoritative and mandatory entry to basic education. This Law was initiated by the Aquino administration in order to address the perceived decreasing quality of education in the country, and to meet the international standard regarding the number of divisions in basic education. This chopine will require all incoming students to enroll into two more(prenominal) years of basic education.The K+12 System will include the worldwide kindergarten, 6 years of elementary, 4 years of junior high trail with an additional 2 years for senior high school. The platform is implemented and explicate along with the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and with the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). The current k-12 model that had been implemented in the country is an ed ucational landscape for basic and secondary system patterned after the United States, Canada and some parts of Australia had done it.According to PatriciaVelascos article, the K- 12 Curriculum envisions holistically develop learners with 21st century acquisitions (DepEd Primer, 2011). This further means that all(prenominal) student would have an understanding of the world around him and a passion for life-long learning while addressing every students basic learning holds learning to learn, the acquisition of numeracy, literacy, and scientific and technological knowledge applied to daily life (p. 6). The main prey of the K to 12 curriculum is to achieve the DepEds goal of eradicating illiteracy rate in the country. No peasant is left rear end. (source). Every Filipino has the proper to accept quality education in order to become an asset in all dimensions, competent, efficient, effective and productive citizen leading to a decent and soothing living. The most interesting pa rt concerning the K to 12 program is on its practical assistance for the poor but skillful students. For instance, the student cannot afford to go to college he is given an option or privilege to be employed not as a professional but on technical gambol because his skills acquired and developed during his Senior High School can be a guarantee for hisqualification for a vocational employment.Moreover, the program aims to uplift the quality of education in the Philippines in order for graduates to be easily employed. Our country is the only country in Asia and among the countries in the world that has a 10 year pre- university program. The program also aims to meet the standards required for professionals who would want to work abroad. The system aims to fully enhance and develop the students in order for them to be well-prep argond especially in aflame and cognitive aspects. Through this, graduates will be able to face the pressures of their future workplace.The K-12 aims the stude nts to have a relevance or importance in the social and economical reality of life. The realm of their role as members of the country. Thus, this vision will be complete through an enhanced curriculum. (K-12 Kindergarten Curriculum pass 2013) DepEd said that this is the right sentence to do something better for the field of education, having poor quality education. The DepEd released their stand along the reform. In stressing the need for the new system of basic education, President Benigno S. Aquino III said, We need to add two years of our basic education.Those who can afford pay up to fourteen yearsof school before university. Thus, their children are getting to the best(p) universities and the best jobs after graduation. I want at least 12 years for our public school children to give them an even chance at succeeding. (source) With the K-12 program, divergent arguments were formulated. Not all are in favor of the K+12 Education program.There are students complaining of the additional years and there are parents who are not in favor of the additional expenses. But it is an undeniable fact that additional years in the education system will very require more budgets not just from the government but from theparents as well. Aside from this, students will need additional classrooms, school supplies and facilities. The program would need more qualified teachers as well.Teachers plays an important role 1 / 3 in the K-12 program because they are the ones who will teach the kindergarten pupils, especially the Pre school teachers. Markovac & Rogulja, 2009, utter that the, early care main goal is to fulfill the Delors principles Learning to be, learning to do, learning to know and learning to live together and to live with others. The early puerility is a time of rapid growth in all aspects ofchildrens development fostered by their natural curiosity and adult support.Therefore, Preschool education is the foundation for a childs education. The skills and knowledge that a child develops in the preschool years will have a dramatic impact on a childs success when formal schooling begins as well as life success. Preschool education is important because it can give your child the edge in a competitive world and education climate. The first year of a childs life is globally acknowledged to be the critical year for lifelong development because the pace of development during these years isextremely rapid (National Council of Educational Research and Training, 2006 as cited in the K to 12 Curriculum Guide Kindergarten).While children who do not receive the fundamentals during their preschool years will be taught the alphabet, counting, shapes and colors when they begin their formal education they will be behind the children who already possess that knowledge and skill set. The Pre school teachers are supposed to have the courage and knowledge to teach the little ones. They will serve as the guide and the second mother at school. Childrens learning will greatly depend on the teachers strategies.Hence, kindergarten teachers should provide them with an engaging and creative curriculum that is developmentally appropriate, age appropriate and socio culturally appropriate (DepEd K to 12 Curriculum guide for Kindergaten, 2012). Many new parents start hearing about K-12 since before their kids are born. However, they are not very clear about what K12 means, and why is necessary for them to start inform themselves about it as it will impact their kids future. What Is K12 Education? This confines was coined to describe primary and secondary education. This includes kindergarten (K) all the way to the 12 grade.This extremely popular type of education is very common among several countries around the world. K to 12 stands for kindergarten plus 12 years of elementary and secondary education. This educational system for basic and secondary education is widely adopted around the world. archeozoic puerility education is intende d to support and complement family upbringing and the main goal is to create good opportunities and conditions for each childs well-being, create a stimulating environment for the childs comprehensive development and learning while taking into account their age, gender and individual features.The role of early childhood care and education settings in improving childrens development has begun to be viewed with increasing importance. The recognition that centre-based childcare is associated with a host of positive developmental outcomes for children, much(prenominal) as increased cognitive abilities, language development, and emotional and social development (Kagan & Neuman, 1997 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development advance(prenominal) Childcare Research Network NICHD, 2000, 2002, 2008 NICHD & Duncan, 2003), has led to the introduction of a new policy in Ireland that provides every three-year-old child with access to a impoverished preschool place for one year (Office of the Minister for Children and Youth Affairs OMCYA, 2009).The importance of preschool learning is that first, parents must remember that preschool education is the foundation for your childs education. As Adams (2008) stressed that early childhood education is the key to building a strong foundation for a childs educational success. The skills and knowledge (not to consult aptitude and attitude) that your child develops in the preschool years will have a dramatic impact on your childs success when formalschooling begins as well as life success, as supported by the House Bill 5367 (2009), aimed to incorporate preschool education to basic education with the DepEd at the confines of its implementation all over the country.This bill was in consonance with the states policy to provide equal opportunities for all children to avail themselves of free and compulsory preschool education that effectively promotes physical, social, intellectual, emotional simulations, let alon e values formation to adequately prepare them for formal elementary schooling, second is that by activelypromoting and back up your childs preschool learning you will promote his or her self esteem as well.Help your child gain confidence by fashioning learning fun and easy at this age and you will 2 / 3 attend make your child an eager lifelong learner and the eventually preschool education is important because it can give your child the edge in a competitive world and education climate. While children who do not receive the fundamentals during their preschool years will be taught the alphabet, counting, shapes and colors when they begin their formal education they will be behind the childrenwho already possess that knowledge and skill set.According to Anita Woolfolk Hoy and Megan Tschannen Moran ,(2002), teachers sense of efficacy has been related to students outcomes such as achievement (Ross, 1992), motivation, (Midgley, Feldlaufer, & Eccles, 1998) and students own sense o f efficacy ( Anderson, Greene, & Loewen, 1998). DepEd Secretary Armin Luistro tell that enhancing the competencies of pre-school teachers will have a great impact on the young learners. We should ensure that teachers are ready for the challenge of making our young kids first school experience enjoyableand giving them a positive experience that will motivate them to remain in school and complete their education. This means that pre-school teachers are the implementers of the socially defined curriculum objectives. They help children to adapt to the society and to become its members, to develop interaction between children and different generations, and absorb the main behavioral habits and roles of the community. Also their job is to educate children to become unique subjects and persons as they truly are (Dewey, 1916 Ojakangas, 1998 Siljander, 2002) To become preschool teachers one must have the ability to deal with pupils ages 5.A preschool teacher of necessity to be proficien t in helping children learn how to cooperate, providing fun learning activities suitable for preschoolers, keeping children safe, working as a team member with other teachers and interacting with parents. Preschool teachers need to be eager participants in childrens growth and development, as well as helping students understand how to use their natural curiosity to help make the appropriate developmental leaps in their skills and abilities. They are expected to create an atmosphere where risks can be taken and discoveries made while children remain safe. provide BY TCPDF (WWW. TCPDF. ORG).

Friday, May 24, 2019

Distributed Leadership Essay

lead is the important natural action that motivates an single to achieve the predetermined objectives. This motivation nurtures inspiration that boosts us towards the goal. Now, comes the discussion of whether the leading arse be centralized or it elicit be distributed among various people. Once we start the discussion of distributed leaders, it should also be known whether it is a horizontal or vertical distribution. Horizontal distribution means distributing the leadership among the same level of people whereas vertical distribution again forks into top-down distribution and bottom-up distribution.Exploring these contrastive approaches we identify two dimensions along which to consider the knowledgeable changes they raise closely measuring how check leadership is distributed across work staff data semen and data focus. We should also observe the variations between schools and between activities that are adapted for distributing the responsibilities of leadership. Let us also consider different carriages of postulateing how the play of managing and leading schools is distributed among people in schools and the methodological and philosophical pros and cons involved in this live on.If we closely observe the daily lives of schools, we can think from a distributed aspect which has the authorization to propose ingestionful insight into how management and leadership unfold themselves. In the process of distributing the leadership, we can identify numerous entities in the school across which leadership can be distributed, including people in the aspects of the situation such as r asideines and imaginations. While there have been recent advances in articulating the conceptual frameworks for distributed school leadership, the verifiable research base in this area is less developed.With a few exceptions, most empirical work has involved small samples of schools. While performing this study of distributed leadership, we come across two important observations to be made Across which school actors do researchers hypothesize leadership and management is distributed? What aspects of leadership and management work are hypothesized to be distributed across people? These two questions lead to many sub questions like Who should provide evidence of distributed leadership? Leaders, followers, or both?Among leaders, should researchers adjudicate evidence on formal leaders, informal leaders, or both? Should the proof on distributed leadership come from self-reports or from more objective measurement plans such as the reports given by others through surveys? How do these various methodological choices about measuring the distributed leadership affect the validity of data? We can use multiple ways of identifying actors within schools among whom the work of leadership and management might be distributed. A distributed perspective serves as a new conceptual frame.It helps us understand leadership practice and how leadership practices mig ht work more effectively in the context of schools. It is non a type of leadership or a style of leadership. Its not a model of leadership. Its not something you place on top of a school and say, Now you are doing distributed leadership. A distributed perspective is thinking about the situation as an integral part of the leadership context it is an integrated view of leaders thinking, their activity and behaviors, and the situation. The distributed perspective focuses on leadership activity.In an organizational context, leadership activity might be laborious to sell a vision in the context of the school or trying to transform the instructional practice in particular classrooms within a school. It is the activity that we are trying to understand. Think about the conformation of people who are involved, how the context shapes what happens with that activity, and how artifacts might be an integral part of that activity. The distributed perspective is integrative thinking about all o f those pieces and on leadership activity itself.The roots of distributed leadership is an outgrowth of activity theory and distributed cognition. Activity theory is about how an activity system works. Think of the cockpit of an airplane the people in the cockpit, the prick panel, the people who are trying to help the plane land and try to think about the activity of landing the plane not as something an individual person does, not as something the instrument panel does without the people, not as something a pilot could do without the air traffic controller. Try to think about the whole activity system.This is comparable to what is meant by leadership activity. With distributed cognition, we are trying to think about how sense making is stretched over amicable interaction and artifacts in an environment. The context and social system matter. Distributed cognition suggests that peoples thinking and actions dont happen in a vacuum. Thinking happens through social interaction and i nteraction with the environment. These impact how the leadership activity happens. Distributed leadership integrates these central ideas from activity theory and distributed cognition.We think of leadership as an influence relationship the susceptibility to influence the practices of others in ways that bring about a major change in form, nature, and function of some phenomenon. But distributed leadership moves beyond trying to understand leadership through the actions and beliefs of single leaders. It is constituted through the interaction of leaders, teachers, and the situation as they influence instructional practice. Distributed leadership is a powerful way to understand leadership activity in schools in more complex and interconnected ways.Distributed leadership can also be called as dispersed leadership, collaborative leadership, democratic leadership and shared leadership. Dispersed appears to suggest leadership as an activity that can be located at different points within an organization and pre-exists delegation which is a conscious choice in the exercise of power. The idea of dispersed leadership is captured by David Greens term leaderful community which involves a community in which people believe they have a contribution to make, can exercise their initiative and can, when relevant to the parturiency in hand, have followers.The Collaborative leaderships operates on the basis of alliance or partnering or networking. Network learning communities, sponsored by NCSL are an expression of collaboration across the boundaries of individual institutions. Collaborative leadership may also apply to an inter-agency context, expressed in schools joint work with community agencies, parents, teacher groups, and other outer stakeholders. Leadership as democratic is by definition antithetical to hierarchy and delegation.Elsbernd suggests four defining characteristics (i) a leaders interaction with, and encouragement of others to get in fully in all aspects of leadership tasks (ii) wide-spread sharing of information and power (iii) enhancing self-worth of others and (iv) energising others for tasks. Democratic leadership can either take the form of consultive (where a leader makes a group decision after consulting members about their willingness) or participative decision-making (where a leader makes the decision in collaboration with the group members a lot based on majority rule).Shared leadership is best understood when leadership is explored as a social process something that arises out of social relationships not simply what leaders do. It does not dwell in an individuals qualities or competencies but lies between people, within groups, in collective action, which defies attempts to single out a leader. A common message that runs through these definitions is that leadership is not the monopoly of any one person, a message that is central to the notion of distributed leadership.In distributed leadership, it is not only the headte achers leadership that counts but also the leadership roles performed by deputy heads, substantive teachers, support teachers, members of school councils, boards or governing bodies and students. Leadership is dispersed rather than concentrated and does not necessarily give any particular individual or categories of persons the privilege of providing more leadership than others.In this clear up distributed leadership cannot be said to be a new leadership technique but rather an intellectual label that seeks to re-enforce the fact that leadership needs to be a shared activity in schools. It should therefore be conceptualised, not simply as another technique or practice of leadership, but, adept as importantly as a way of thinking about leadership in post-heroic terms rather than a heroic phenomenon.In this way, we can distinguish clearly between delegation as a heroic phenomenon in which distribution is initiated solely from the top (headteacher) and distributed leadership as a post-heroic phenomenon in which distribution does not solely depend on the headteachers initiative. Everyone in the schools should have the opportunity to exercise leadership from the youngest child through out and not just a selected few (Secondary head) and problems in the schools should be dealt openly and honestly with the involvement of other people (secondary head).Staff who have only been in the school for a short time could also be school leaders in that they show by their personality, by their vision, by their jobs, commitment, expectations and values that they have got the susceptibility to lead. In a sense, anyone can be a leader. It is a process that a lot of staff can demonstrate. Formally, the process of distribution is initiated by the headteacher who identifies and delegates leadership responsibilities to individual teachers.Schools, in some places are structured in terms of designated leadership and managerial roles through which the headteacher delegates respons ibility. Such delegations may be driven by a headteachers recognition that others have expertise that he/she does not have. Distributed in this way, there is an expectation of delivery and the headteachers role is to support and provide. The formality characterising the distribution process gradually leads unto a less formal or informal approach as headteachers develop trust in their teachers and beget more confident in teachers leadership capabilities.As headteachers become more comfortable with their own indorsement and feel more able to acknowledge the authority of others they are able to extend the compass of leadership and to let go the more. This is evident in one headteachers comment I think initially from top-down through delegation and as it progresses it becomes both bottom-up and top-down. People who show willingness to take some levels of initiative from any direction are unfeignedly encouraged. And I love to see it really happen and thats when I become happy.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Crude Oil Refining or Petroleum Product Importation: Which Is Economical for Nigeria

CRUDE OIL REFINING OR PETROLEUM PRODUCTS IMPORTATION WHICH IS ECONOMICAL FOR NIGERIA? ABSTRACT One of the most crucial challenges facing Nigeria is being sufficient to pertain the slide fastener pack of the push button hungry populace the exponential population growth stigmas it even more challenging. The approach adopted to meeting this need has impacted severely on the economy of the nation as reflected in the year-on-year stinting figures. This can be attributed to her choice of net importer of oil color crossroads status to the more than more frugal domestic refining option.This paper analyses the best economic option between refining earthy inunct and importing the products in Nigeria, at the end devising probable suggestions. TABLE OF CONTENT ABBRECIATIONS 1. NTRODUCTION. 4 2. CRUDE OIL REFINING AND PETROLEUM IMPORTATION IN NIGERIA 5 2. 1 Overview 5 2. Challenges of oil color Product Refining in Nigeria 6 3. CRUDE OIL REFINING AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS ECONOMICS . . 8 3. 1 The Economics of Crude gross(a) Refining .. 8 3. 2 The Economics of vegetable oil Products.. 9 4. CRUDE OIL REFINING, PETROLEUM PRODUCTS IMPORTATION AND THE ECONOMY.. 0 5. CONCLUSION 11 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 13 ABBREVIATIONS BPSD Barrels per Stream Day B/D Barrels per Day CBN Central Bank of Nigeria GDP Gross Domestic ProductNNPC Nigerian subject Petroleum Corporation NPRC Nigerian Petroleum Refining Company PHRC Port Harcourt Refinery Company 1. INTRODUCTION The role of stark(a) oil hang ins key among the energy sources, hence we rush to still live with the consequences that are associated with it, one of which is economical. This obviously is an aspect no country, importer and exporter have been able to overcome, though its impact on some countries is less than in others.Nigeria is definitely one of those countries whose economy has been monumentally impacted, ironically though, a leading crude oil producer and exporter in the world. However, this is not to take out crud e oils enormous contribution to the Nigerian macro-economy over the years it holds sway. The discovery of oil in Nigeria was thought to be a fine-looking respite to the growing energy supply challenges facing her and to bring economical gains, especially as the price of oil has a lot been on the increase. Hence, should have do huge sums of money from it.Incidentally, this is not to be, as oil suddenly took shine off the hitherto major sources of the countrys GDP. Sectors similar agriculture and manufacturing went moribund, making Nigeria a mono-economy, with oil being the mainstay of the economy. It provides 95% of foreign exchange earnings and about 80% of government budgetary revenues1. The Nigeria economy plays into the hands of the excitability of extremely vulnerable external shocks, particularly the vicissitude of world oil market prices, and the consequent inflations that characterise it most of the ms.With the production of 229,008,126 barrels of crude oil and condensat es increased in the third quarter of 2010 with an average of 2. 49 cardinal barrels per day of domestic production in recent years, four refineries of 445,000 b/d refining capacity, the issue of meeting domestic oil demand should have been comfortably addressed. However, with the 0 15% refining capacity in 20092, which is oftentimes the case over the years, import became the only available alternative. Hence, Nigeria though a leading exporter of crude oil in the world is also, ironically, a net importer of petroleum products.This paper is divided into four chapters chapter 2 looks at crude oil refining in Nigeria, offering an overview and challenges that confronts it. In chapter 3, crude oil refining and petroleum products economics is examined and chapter 4 looks at the implications of both crude oil refining and importation vis a vis the economy. The chapter 5 concludes the paper with few suggestions as to what the best economic option should be in meeting the petroleum pro ducts demand in Nigeria. 2. CRUDE OIL REFINING IN NIGERIA 2. 1OVERVIEWThe petroleum products consumed in Nigeria had been imported from refineries oversea this continued even a couple of years after the discovery of crude oil in a commercial quantity in the country. However, as the demand for the products increased and with the availability of the feed carry, the cardinal Multinationals in operation(p) in the country then saw it as a viable business to establish refinery that would arrange the domestic demand. This lead to the 50/50 joint venture refining company between Shell Darcy Petroleum Company and British Petroleum called the Nigerian Petroleum Refining Company (NPRC) in 1960.The construction of the refinery took two years to complete by 1965 it commenced military operation at an installed refining capacity of 38,000 bpsd3 to refine local anaesthetic crude into five petroleum products. It was located at AlesaEleme, near Port Harcourt, some kilometres away from the crude oil production location. In order to meet the ever increasing demand for the products, the refinery was debottlenecked to increase its production capacity from the initial 38,000 bpsd to 60,000 bpsd. Running as a private entity, the company was able to run goodly, productively and met the omestic product consumption demand. In 1970, the Federal acquired and paid for a 60 percent equity share in all private international companies works in the Upstream and D give birthstream empyreans of the Petroleum Industry in the country4, NPRC inclusive. Despite been the major shareholder, the Federal Government al brokened NPRC to operate without interference. It was only represented by its own corporation, the Nigerian National Oil Corporation (NNOC), on which the shares were invested on to represent it at the board meetings of NPRC.Hence, the company was commercially profitable, well maintained and ran very efficiently. A decree in 1977 gave birth to the Nigerian National Petroleum Corpor ation (NNPC), which was later to appoint the Chairman of NPRC, and then acquired the remaining 40 percent support in NPRC. This in effect do the NPRC a serious Government entity under the Refinery Division of the NNPC, headed by a general manager. The name was changed to NNPC Refinery, AlesaEleme, now headed by a managing director and having a new management structure.It was under the general manager of NNPC Refinery Division at the headquarters. A wholly Government built Refinery commenced operation in 1978, after a 30month construction. It was located at Warri, and had an installed refining capacity of 100,000 b/d. and was de bottlenecked in 1985 to have a native capacity of125, 000 b/d. The Warri Refinery was essentially built to bring crude oil products and to add value to some of the refinery by-products such as propylene rich stock and decant oil5. Soon after, in 1980, another refinery, the Kaduna Refinery came on stream.It was meant to cope with the ever growing demand for petroleum products, especially in the Northern axis of the country. The refinery consisted of two streams, 50, 000 b/d fuel units and 50, 000 b/d lubes, Asphalt plants. It was designed to produce 3,857mt/d of Premium Motor Spirit (PMS), 1,686mt/d of Kerosene, 3,000mt/d of self-propelling Gas Oil (AGO), 1,796mt/d of Asphalt, 91mt/d of LAB, 657mt/d of Base Oils, 620mt/d of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), 2,100mt/d of Fuel Oil. The existing products pipeline linking Warri Refinery to Kaduna was reborn to pump crude oils for supply to the new Kaduna Refinery.Again, akin the previous refineries, the fuel section of Kaduna Refinery was de-bottlenecked from the 50, 000 b/d to 60, 000 b/d. This brought the Kaduna Refinery to overall 110, 000 b/d capacity6. The ordinal and final refinery was a new grassroots refinery, adjacent to the existing Port Harcourt Refinery, with an install capacity of 150, 000 bpsd. With this, Nigeria good installed refining capacity is 445, 000b/d, which wa s originally built to armed service both the domestic and international petroleum product demand.Unfortunately, the purpose for these refineries were short-lived, serving only for a couple of years before to each one began to experience respective(a) man-made challenges that made them exist centres instead of the originally intended commercially profitable centres. The ever growing domestic product demands were no more met, as acute scarcity became a normal phenomenon. This led, unfortunately to the return of high propensity of petroleum product importation in order to meet the energy need of the nation. 2. 2 CHALLENGES OF PETROLEUM PRODUCT REFINING IN NIGERIAThe Nigerian state-owned four refineries have undergone, and still undergo several man-made challenges that have made it more of a liability to the country than an asset. One of the issues that reduced the refineries to cost centres is bureaucracy. Immediately NNPC took over the running of the first refinery, bureaucracy si lenced the commercial cultures that doctor a business thrive. Tens of signatures would have to be appended on a letter seeking to fix or procure working materials. These unnecessarily delay sustainment and impact the efficient running of the refineries.Also, being fully under the control of Government, all the funds for running the refineries would have to come from Government coffers. This occasioned delays and outright poor funding. Working capital especially meant to procure the needed spare parts, chemicals and all other necessary items for operations was not forthcoming, hence leading to the continues breakdown often experienced in the various refineries. The recommended 24-36 months normal industry Turnaround Maintenance (TAM) was hardly done7.It took years, far above the recommended time in between for TAM at the various refineries. The results were failures, wear and tear of the equipment, frequent shutdowns and complete non operations. Efficiency of the refining industry is such that needs well trained manpower. However, most of the refinery staff like any other state- ran enterprise were employed or appointed on ethnic or political sentiment. In such case, proper management and cogency is thrown to the wind. Dedication and commitment to duty is hardly there, and the consequence is obvious. The big one is corruption.The refineries have over the years become conduit pipes of siphoning tax payers money. Some individuals in Government seem to have become rich by the comatose state of these refineries, hence would do everything within their powers to make them remain so. These challenges have rendered the refineries helpless and never operating at the capacity utilization. Because of these, the country never really enjoyed product sufficiency with its vast reserve and refineries it ordinarily should have. Hence, Nigeria has constantly been a net importer of petroleum products. 3.CRUDE OIL REFINING AND PETROLEUM PRODUCT ECONOMICS 3. 1CRUDE OIL REFININ G ECONOMICS The overall economics or viability of a refinery depends on the interaction of three key elements the choice of crude oil used (crude slate), the complexity of the refining equipment (refinery configuration) and the desired type and quality of products produced (product slate). Refinery operating cost, utilization rate and environmental considerations also influence refinery economics8. The type of crude used would determine whether there would be investment in the upgrading processes of the refinery.Light, sweet crude require less upgrading, heavy crude do need more upgrading. Also, the product demand in the market determines the configuration of the refinery. For instance, the U. S. refineries are configure to process a large plowshare of heavy, high sulphur crude and to produce large quantities of gasoline and low amounts of heavy fuel oil. The Canadian refineries are configured for light, sweet crude, hence would upgrading to process heavy crude. Most of the Europea n refinery configuration favours the production of diesel gasoline accounts only 20% production9.Obviously, the Nigeria refineries were configured for the light crude the country produces and produces a wide range of products meant for her market and other markets. The refinery utilization rate is a very critical component of refining economics. High percentage capacity utilization is needed for a refinery to increase operating efficiency and reduce costs per unit of output. A utilization rate of about 95% is considered optimum as it allows for normal shutdown required for maintenance and seasonal adjustments. The operable capacity of Nigerian refineries has on average 0 15% utilization, which make them grossly under utilized.High utilization capacity is one of the things that make for profit margin scenario for refineries. The refinery industry has historically been a high- volume, low- margin industry, characterised by low return on investments and volatile profits. Profitability is measured by return on investment, defined as the net income contributed by refining/marketing as a percentage of net fixed assets (net property, plant, and equipment plus investments and advances)10. One way to represent the economics of a refinery is to calculate its Refinery Gross bound11.For example, if a refinery receives $80 from the sale of the products pure from a barrel of crude oil that costs $70/bbl, then the Refinery Gross allowance is $10/bbl. The Net or Cash Margin is equal to the gross margin minus the operating costs (excluding income taxes, depreciation and financial charge. If a refinery experiences operating costs of $2 per barrel, then the Net Margin is $8/bbl12. The refinery margins are normally set on a competitive market, where the market is open. The contrary is the case in the Nigerian environment, the refineries are not working, and whenever they do, profit is never the aim. 3. PETROLEUM PRODUCT ECONOMICS Refined products market is different from cru de oil market in a round of ways, owing to the shield of operation ( much smaller for refined products a typical crude oil transaction involves 500,000 or even one million barrels of oil, season a typical refined products sale may involve only 5,000 to 10,000 bbls), quality considerations, price differentials and market size. In a competitive market, refined product prices are determined by supply, demand and inventory conditions at a given location and time13. International (border) price comes to play in the economics of refined products.The exchange rate used to convert the dollar value of imports into the domestic currency is the interbank exchange market rate, which is market determined. A freight charge (including indemnity margin) is added to the value to get the landed cost. Import duty, domestic distribution, storage, marketing, and transportation margins are then added to obtain the order price at retail level14. Imported petroleum products also has additional cost lik e Port charges, taxes and export duties at source country, insurance costs for transportation and brokerage costs for agents.The obvious macrocosm is that there exists a wide range of domestic prices for petroleum products, determined mainly by the market and subject only to taxes and special charges in the substantial countries. However, in developing countries like Nigeria, the prices are fixed by the government. Hence, the products are bought at the international price with a very high interbank exchange rate, and change at a heavily subsidized, domestic rate, which has serious implications to the economy. 4. CRUDE OIL REFINING, PETROLEUM PRODUCTS IMPORTATION AND THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY. For a start, the estimated daily crisis-free demand for petroleum products in Nigeria today, are 30 million litres of petrol (PMS), 12 million litres of kerosene (DPK), 18 million litres of diesel oil (AGO), and 780 metric tons (1. 4 million litres) of cooking gas (LPG). (Braide, 2003)15. Nigeria with a population of 158. 2 million (UN, 2010) and increment to workers salary in the recent years, which have empowered quite a number of people to acquire some petroleum products demanding appliances, is much more pent-up now than in the last ten years.This makes it more challenging to satisfy. Government have obviously chosen a very hard alternative, importation, to have the demand met. With a weak currency (of N153 = $1), at a current price of crude on the international market and heavily subsidized domestic price of petroleum products. For instance, PMS have been at N65 ($42 cents)/litre in Nigeria for a couple of years now, as against the expected open market price of N131. 32 ($84 cents)/litre16. Importation, though the only alternative to the non-functional refineries, is economically catastrophic.For instance, Government spend $1. 34billion17 from January to March, 2011 to import petroleum products to the country. In a year, this will amount to $5. 36 billion for importat ion alone, this excludes importations from marketing companies in Nigeria, tax waivers, demurrage and other implied costs that makes the total amount of importing the commodities extremely high. Government Petroleum Support depot (PSF), which was established to disburse funds to the importing companies and the NNPC have between January, 2006 and July 2008 spent US$ 9. 2 billion18 for subsidy alone.The fund also spent over US$ 3 billion from 2009 to the first quarter of 201019 for subsidising the importation of PMS and HHK within the period. The Year-on-year importation of petroleum products keep depleting the countrys external reserve, thereby putting the economy in bad standing. On the other hand, the KRPC, WRPC and PHRC (new) were built with lump sums of $525 million, $478 million, and $850 million respectively20. Unfortunately, with the poor management, the refineries from every statistics available have become liabilities to the country.With ultra low capacity utilization, a hu ge staff, high operating cost, no profit from NNPC year-on-year accounts21, the refineries at present state are not economical. The implication of these is that the cost of crude oil, refining, importation, and distribution of the products are borne by the countrys treasury. A private sector run refinery industry is the only answer for meeting domestic demand at a very huge economic gain and energy trade protection to the country.This will also revive the ailing petrochemical industry, which has a massive ripple effect on job creation, directly and through other dependent industries like Paint and Plastic industries. But before this can be realised the unavoidable deregulation has to take place. Little wonder why the over 18 private licensed refinery companies are yet to mobilise to site. Therefore, Government should revisit the issue of deregulation, and then privatise the state-run refineries. This massive importation does no good at all to the country, and should be reduced to n ear zero minimum. 5.CONCLUSION Government should be commended for taking up the challenge of building the capital intensive refineries, being beyond the ability of any local company at the time. It created energy security, jobs, averted looming crisis arising from massive shortage of supply of petroleum products and saved so much cost. But its continual running of the refineries is, to say the least wasteful and harmful to the economy. Refineries are commercial ventures, with huge financial implications, and do not provide much recitation opportunities to warrant such protectionism by Government22.Obviously, it is only a few that benefits in a State-run refinery at the expense of many. Privatisation of the refineries holds more prospects economically to the country than what obtains. At the time being, the unenviable net importer position of the country is no more sustainable. Less Importation would save so much cost and the Nigerian economy protect from the unstable, volatile int ernational petroleum price. Subsidy has caused considerable loss of revenue and a rapid growth in domestic oil consumption as low price does not reflect real cost for consumption.It has contributed to the collapse of local refineries, as price of fuel do not show cost of supply. Reluctance of private players to invest in refineries, persistent fuel shortages at filling stations, dilapidated supply and distribution infrastructures, smuggling, and product adulteration, all of which impact substantially on the economy are the consequences of the continues subsidy regime in place. Everything should be done to encourage a functional refinery industry to check the crippling importations. An efficient refinery industry in Nigeria would have massive market both within the country and in the neighbouring ountries, and this brings immeasurable economic gains that are able to change the economic outlook of the country. BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY SOURCES NATIONAL LEGISLATIONS The Nigerian National Pe troleum Corporation Act, 1977 The Petroleum Products Pricing Regulatory Act, 2003, No 8, Laws of the Federal Republic of Nigeria SECONDARY SOURCES BOOKS Gary, J. H. , Handwerk, G. E. , Kaiser, M. J. , Petroleum Refining Technology and Economics, (5th Edition) (United States of America, Florida, CRC Press, 2007). OTHERS INTERNET SOURCES Braide, K. M. The Mechanics of Fuel Scarcity in Nigeria, http//www. nigerdeltacongress. com/marticles/mechanics_dynamics_fuel_scarc. htm. (assessed 13/04/2011). CBN, http//www. cenbank. org/Out/2011/pressrelease/gvd/CommuniqueforMPCMeetingofMarch 21 22 2011_21st Mar_. pdf (assessed 01/05/2011). CIA, The World Factbook, http//www. cia. gov/library/Publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni. html (assessed 18/04/2011). Hossain, M. S. , Taxation and Pricing of Petroleum Products in Developing Countries A Framework for Analysis with Application to Nigeria, http//www. imf. rg/external/Pubs/ft/wp/2003/wp0342. pdf (assessed 20/04/2011). Iba, L. , Fuel Crisis St ill time lag for private refineries, http//64. 182. 172/webpages/news/2010/july/12//busines-12-2010. 001. htm (assessed 09/05/2011). Nigerian Refineries History, Problems and Possible solutions, http//www. businessdayonline. com/NG/index. php/oil/3256-nigerian-refineries-history-problems-and-possible-solutions-1 (assessed 09/05/2011). NNPC, Annual Statistics Bulletin, http//www. nnpcgroup. com/Portals/0/MonthlyPerformance/2009ABS Web. pdf (assessed 01/05/2011). NNPC, Subsidiaries, http//www. npcgroup. com/NNPCBusiness/Subsidiaries/ (assessed 09/05/2011). PPPRA, Report on the Administration of the Petroleum Support Fund (PSF), http//www. pppra-nigeria. org/briefonadministrationofPSF. pdf (assessed 01/05/2011). Refinery Economics, http//nrcan. gc. ca/eneene/sources/petpet/refraf-eng. php (assessed 19/04/2011). Refining & Product Specifications Overview, http//www. petroleumonline. com/content/overviemCont. asp? mod=8&ord=10 (assessed 19/04/2011). 1CIA-The World Factbook, at http//w ww. cia. gov/library/Publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni. tml (assessed 18/04/2011) 2 NNPC 2009 annual report and EIA Nigeria Energy Data, Statistics and Analysis-oil, Gas, Electricity, coal 3 This is the maximum number of barrels of input that a distillation facility can process when running at full capacity under optimal crude and product slate condition with no allowance for downtime. 4 Nigerian Refineries History, Problems and Possible solutions, at http//www. businessdayonline. com/NG/index. php/oil/3256-nigerian-refineries-history-problems-and-possible-solutions-1 (assessed 09/05/2011) 5 Ibid 6 Ibid 7 Ibid 8 Refinery Economics, at http//nrcan. gc. a/eneene/sources/petpet/refraf-eng. php (assessed 19/04/2011) 9 Ibid 10Ibid 11 The difference in dollars per barrel between its product revenue (sum of barrels of each product multiplied by the price of each product) and the cost of raw materials (primarily crude, but also purchased additives like butane and ethanol) 12 Refining & Product Specifications Overview, at http//www. petroleumonline. com/content/overviewConti. asp? mod=8&ord=10 (assessed 20/04/2011) 13Gary, J. H. , Handwerk, G. E. , Kaiser, M. J. , Petroleum Refining Technology and Economics, (5th Edition) (United States of America, Florida CRC Press, 2007) at 18-19. 14Hossain, M. S. , Taxation and pricing of Petroleum Products in Developing Countries A Framework for Analysis with Application to Nigeria, at http//www. imf. org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2003/wp0342. pdf (assessed 20/04/2011) 15 Braide, K. M. , The Mechanics of Fuel Scarcity in Nigeria at http//www. nigedeltacongress. com/martiles/mechanics_dynamics_of_fuel_scarc. htm (assessed 20/04/2011). 16 Ibid 17CBN, http//www. cenbank. org/Out/2011/pressrelease/gvd/CommuniqueforMPCMeetingofMarch21 22 2011_21stMarch_. pdf (assessed 02/05/2011). 18PPPRA, Report on the

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Richard III: Power of Language and Own Villainy

Deformed in ashes and twisted in mind, Richard is in any way the dominant character of the play, to the extent that he is both the plays protagonist and major villain. He is selfish, evil, corrupt, sadistic, and manipulative. His intelligence, governmental brilliance, and dazzling practise of quarrel keeps the audience fascinated and his subjects and rivals under his control. At the beginning of the play, it is made clear to the audience that Richard has no justification for seizing the throne.This is because England is obviously not oppressed or subject to tyranny as the lengthy civil war has just ended, and Richards oldest brother, King Edward IV, now sits on the throne. Richard himself, states that All the clouds that loured upon our house (1. 1, 3), the house of York, has been dispelled by the son of York (1. 1, 2), King Edward IV. However, Richard intends to upset the kingdom by seizing power for himself. He says that since I cannot prove a lover to entertain these fair ar ticulate days, I am determined to prove a villain (1. , 28).This simply means that since Richard was not made to be a lover, he has no use for peace, and will happily destroy peace with his crimes. This shows Richards unabashed enjoyment of his own abhorrence as he can so blithely lurch aside all(prenominal) of the things that the rest of humanity cherishes. Richard III is an intense exploration of the psychology of evil, and that exploration is centred on the workings of Richards mind and the methods he uses to manipulate, control, and shock others for his own gain.Perhaps more than any other play by Shakespeare, the audience of Richard III work throughs a complex, indefinite, and highly erratic relationship with the main character. Richard is understandably a villain as he declares outright in his very first speech that he intends to stop at nothing to achieve his last goal of becoming king. However, despite his open allegiance to evil, he has such a charismatic and fascina ting personality that, for much of the play, we are likely to see with him, or are at least impressed by him.In this way, our relationship with Richard reflects the other characters relationships with him, conveying a powerful sense of the force of his personality. thus far characters such as Lady Anne, who have an explicit knowledge of his wickedness, overlook his dishonesty and violent behaviour and allow themselves to be seduced by his brilliant wordplay, his estimable argumentation, and his relentless pursuit of his selfish desires. Richards long, fascinating soliloquys, in which he outlines his plans and gleefully confesses all his evil thoughts, are central to the audiences experience of Richard.Shakespeare uses these soliloquys brilliantly to control the audiences impression of Richard, enabling this manipulative protagonist to work his charm on the audience. In Act I, scene i, for example, Richard offers a pretext for his villainy towards others by pointing out that he is unloved, and that he is unloved because of his physical deformity. Richard himself is brutally honest about his appearance. He admits to being imperfectly cause and blames premature birth for his condition. He knows that he is not shaped for sportive tricks (1. 1, 14) and while others delight in an amorous looking glass (1. , 14), his misshapen body creates a shadow in the sun (1. 1, 26) that alienates him from others.Hence, Lady Anne calls Richard a lump of foul deformity (1. 2, 57) in Act I, scene ii. This proves that Richards claim not only makes the other characters of the play seem like the villains for punishing him for his appearance, but also makes it easy for the audience to sympathize with Richard during the first scenes of the play and even foretaste that he will succeed despite his obvious villainy. It quickly becomes apparent, however, that Richard simply uses his deformity as a tool to gain the sympathy of others, including the audience.This is already noted in his very first speech as Richard seems to take a deliberate perverse delight in his outward shape. He chooses words such as, cheated, deformed, unfinished, half made up, dogs bark at him as he passes by because of his deformity to describe himself. Richards unabashed villainy is a much more natural part of his character than simple bitterness about his ugly body. Nevertheless, he still manages to use speech to come after our trust, and he repeats this throughout his struggle to be crowned king.An interesting secondary theme of Richard III is the power of language, or the importance of language in achieving political power. Language may not always be a necessary instrument of power, but for Richard, it is a crucial weapon. As we have seen, it is with his extraordinary skills with words that allows him to ridicule, insult, taunt and deceive all who stand in his way to power. Richards skill with language and argument is what enables him to woo Lady Anne, have Clarence thrown in prison a nd blame the king for Clarences death, all at very little risk to himself.In conclusion, I feel Richard IIIs unabashed enjoyment of both the power of language and his own villainy makes him a character worthy of both respect and admiration, and therefore I completely keep back with this statement. This is because Richards unabashed power of language shows off the ingenious wit and intellectual cleverness of the character, actor and playwright, while his own villainy makes the play all the more fascinating and entertaining as his heinous acts become more chilling.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Measurement of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (Bod)

Title Laboratory 2 Measurement of Biochemical atomic number 8 Demand ( mannequin) Objective To determine the add up of oxygen necessary for biological oxidation of sewer water effluent and determine the amount of oxygen required by bacteria while stabilizing analyzable organic fertilizer occasion. Methodology Apparatus Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) meter, Dissolved Oxygen bottle (DO bottle), pipette, Teflon tape, dilution water, incubator machine. Procedure Add 300 ml dilute water then take DO reading immediately Closed properly and keep into the incubator (200C).Take reading for the next 5 old age Add 3 ml dilute water and fill up with dilute water until 300ml then take DO reading immediately shape 1 Precaution Samples for BOD analysis may change greatly during handling and storage. Testing should be started as quickly as possible. To reduce the changes in those essays which must be held, keep the samples at or below 4C. Do not allow samples to freeze. Samples may be kept for no to a greater extent than 48 hours before beginning the BOD test. Students assign to restrain interference from chlorine. Because chlorine is such a strong oxidizing agent, it will inhibit the growth of quick bacteria in the BOD test.Any samples containing residual chlorine must be pretreated to remove chlorine before the test is run. This is done by adding sodium sulfite to the sample. Samples with primitive pH values and samples containing disinfectants such as residual chlorine must be treated prior to testing. Caustic alkalinity or acidity locoweed prevent bacteria from growing during the course of the BOD test. To prevent this, samples which have pH values higher than pH 8. 0 or lower than pH 6. 0 must be neutralized to pH 7. 0 before the test is performed. Result 1) 3 ml sample classify Sample Result First day (1st) 5th day (5th) DO Temp DO Temp (mg/l) (0C) (mg/l) (0C) 1 Blank 1st 9. 20 25. 8 9. 26 20. 3 2nd 9. 16 25. 8 9. 30 20. 4 3rd 9. 13 25. 8 9. 31 20 . 5 think up 25. 8 20. 4 shoot a line Water 1st 9. 24 26. 2 8. 73 20. 5 2nd 9. 12 26. 2 8. 77 20. 6 3rd 9. 10 26. 2 8. 79 20. 7 Mean 26. 2 20. 6 4 Blank 1st 9. 14 25. 9 9. 04 20. 5 2nd 9. 16 26 9. 02 20. 5 3rd 9. 15 26 9. 01 20. 5 Mean 25. 97 20. 5 Waste Water 1st 9. 08 26. 2 8. 31 20. 2nd 9. 05 26. 3 8. 34 20. 7 3rd 9. 02 26. 4 8. 35 20. 8 Mean 26. 3 20. 73 5 Blank 1st 9. 10 25 8. 86 20. 5 2nd 9. 11 25 8. 88 20. 5 3rd 9. 10 25 8. 86 20. 5 Mean 25 20. 5 Waste Water 1st 9. 10 25 7. 82 20. 5 2nd 9. 11 25 7. 82 20. 5 3rd 9. 11 25 7. 84 20. 5 Mean 25 20. 5 The BOD of the sample bathroom be calculates using the equations provided in the following First Equation is provided by the standard method BOD5= mgL= D1 D2P Second Equation is BOD5= mgL= D1 D2 -B1 B2 P WhereD1 DO of the thin out sample immediately after preparation, mg/L D2 DO of the diluted sample after 5-day incubation at 200c, mg/L B1 DO of the obligate before incubation B2 DO of the control after incubation P fraction of the wastewater sample volume to total combined volume Group Sample First day (1st) Fifth day (5th) BOD5 BOD5 DO Temp DO Temp (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (0C) (mg/l) (0C) (1st Equation) (2ndEquation) 1 Blank 9. 16 25. 8 9. 29 20. 4 52 Waste Water 9. 15 26. 2 8. 76 20. 6 39 4 Blank 9. 15 25. 97 9. 02 20. 5 59 Waste Water 9. 05 26. 3 8. 33 20. 73 72 Blank 9. 1 25 8. 87 20. 5 105 Waste Water 9. 11 25 7. 83 20. 5 128 Discussion From the equation, the result are totally different, it is because second (2nd) equation actually are specialist for seeded sample. Since that, it does not suitable and cant be used to calculate the BOD level. BOD test is a biological test dependent on the actions of the microorganisms found in the wastewater and, as such, is subject to a number of interpretations. These variations can be caused by a number of factors, including changes in temperature, weather, composition of incoming sewage, in plant o perations, and sample distribution points.Results can vary widely from day to day, or even hour to hour. . Form the result we found that the the BOD level in group 5 is 128mg/L, Group 4 72mg/L is quiet higher rather than Group 1 39mg/L. When BOD levels are high, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels decrease because the oxygen that is forthcoming in the water is being consumed by the bacteria. Since less dissolved oxygen is available in the water, fish and other aquatic organisms may not survive. If referred to the IWK website, BOD5 at 200C is 20mg/L for standard A and 50mg/L for standard B.Its mean only sample from group 1 is under control and can be authorise as clean. High level of result from group 4 and 5 may resulted by the input of nitrates and phosphate. Nitrates and phosphates in a body of water can contribute to high BOD levels. Nitrates and phosphates are plant nutrients and can cause plant life and algae to grow quickly. When plants grow quickly, they also die quickly. This con tributes to the organic waste in the water, which is then decomposed by bacteria. One of the major disadvantages of the BOD test is the time lag between the collection of samples and the final calculation of results.This makes the BOD test a poor test for determining whether or not operational changes are needed. In addition, the rate and degree that organic matter in wastewater is decomposed (or oxidized) by the normal bacteria present in a sample is largely dependent on the characteristics of the organic matter. For example, some organic matter (like sugars or starches) are oxidized very easily and rapidly, and will almost always result in measurable BOD. Other organic matter, however, is sometimes resistant to biological oxidation, and may require special acclimated bacteria to oxidize the material and to show a BOD.Although this is what actually happens in nature, it causes significant variation in BOD results from sample to sample. Conclusion, high level of BOD reflects to the DO which it will be decrease. Which is mean the water quality if poor. References Unknown. (n. d. ). Indah Water. Retrieved from http//www. iwk. com. my/v/knowledge-arena/effluent-standards Unknown, A. (n. d. ). Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Overview. Retrieved from Polyseed. com http//www. polyseed. com/misc/BODforwebsite. pdf

Monday, May 20, 2019

Mats Ek Carmen

This essay forget analyze and discuss one of Europes most creative and influential dance-makers, the Swedish social dancer and choreographer matts Ek acclaimed for the theatricality and immediateness of his bleed while his contri onlyion and development through the dance field with the main focus on his revision of the classical concert dance stories. It will as salutary as discuss one of his major produces Carmen and refer it with the cowcatcher one. Mats Ek is a prominent and controversial figure of the contemporary dance.He has his own choreographic modal value and his work in contemporary dance choreography is contested. He was born in 1945. Eks mother, and his big entice, was the famed dancer and choreographer Birgit Cullberg, the founder of the cosmos wide recognized, Cullberg B tout ensembleet Company. As said before, his mother was a huge influence for Ek. Therefore one give the axe check over that both, Mats Ek and Birgit Cullberg, choreographic way has a lot of same faceistics much(prenominal) as the attention of psychological characterization, the sensitive portrayal of humans feelings and the humorous episodes. In performance we see a fantasy orbit so unwaveringly strange and characters so imperiously dysfunctional were genuinely compelled Ek may ask his dancers to go to some very(prenominal) odd places but the Cullberg Ballet follows him with ardent cleverness (Judith Mackrell, the Guardian. ) In 19745, Ek was a member of the Deutsche Oper am Rhein, Dusseldorf, and then do his choreographic debut in 1976 with The policemans Servant, for the Cullberg Ballet, the first of many of his works formed on them. In 1980 he became the artistic music director of the Ballet Cullberg and a member of the Nederlands Dance Theatre.He in addition worked and created firearms with many great dance companies. Mats Ek in well known for his revisionist readings of the classic ballets. He has also created his own work and most of the cartridge holder his pieces rich person to do a lot with humor. However in reworking ballet classics, Ek the likes ofs to keep the characters alive so as to always provide an inner emotion to the characters emotions and contrasts. The characters in his pieces,in contrast to the classic ones, build an emotional world of much more intense than usually and the relationship between them has a greater depth.Although he is rewriting the legitimate pieces, he never forgets to stay true to the original context of the work and as out-of-the-way(prenominal) as the music is concerned he always uses the original one with very slight changes still to suit the new outstanding structure. Mats Eks key word, is clarity, despite the concomitant that he aims for clarity, this does not imply that he also uses simplicity in his pieces. I was never interested in keeping to the classical traditions as such, What I want to explore argon the underlying fairy tales that convey fundamental human issues tell ap art, deceit, pain, goodness.The classics have become cliches, and we have forgotten how they came to be and what they imply. We know them so well they cease to have import for our time. (Mats Ek) Mats Ek is very often labeled that he relates his choreographies with the politics of the time that the choreographies are being made. This is not but right because none of Mr. Eks choreographies can be regarded as a political manifesto. In his pieces, the strong images and the outstanding situations will occasionally lead into humorous episodes. Humor, is one of Eks main characteristics throughout his pieces and as mentioned previously in the report so is his mothers.By using humor in his dances, this does not mean that the pieces lose their tension. Since Mats Ek also studied theatre, most of the time his creations are a lot more dramatic than usual and this can be detected in every one of his pieces (Fifty present-day(a) Choreographers, Pages 144-146). Ek has a vivid theatricality a nd acquaint for genuine surprises his theatricality is matched by a full-out dance language that merges the sophisticated with the primitive. I became aware of hardly how much meaning Ek can compress into his pieces (Nadine Meisner, the Independent).Eks style has become distinctive for its imaginative interpretations of fiblines, in combination with a lyrical approach which transfers through movement the underlying emotions and feelings rather than incisively the autobiography detail. His choreographic style and wording is mainly from his ballet training, his relationship and dance experience with his mother and his quislingism with the Nederland Dance Theatre. Although Ek has rejected the conventional codes of classic ballet, it is clear in his pieces the he uses a lot of ballet technique.This can be found within the jumps, turns and footwork that he uses within his movement vocabulary. At the same time though, Ek uses a lot of contemporary movements such as drop of the pelv is, a lot of floor work and body weight. He manages to relate both styles with a unique and wonderful way in govern for everything to look good and lovely. (Fifty Contemporary Choreographers, Pages 147-148) Ek has done a great deal to enlarge how women are envisioned on stage, especially in the ballet classics. His Giselle and Carmen offer intense reimaginings oftheir heroines. (Keeping dance alive a Mats Eks portrait.Claudia La Rocco, TV classics) Lets now move on to one of his most famous and great works, Carmen. Originally, Carmen was first performed in Paris on 3 March, 1875. Written by Georges Bizet. The story is close to a temptress, Carmen, and her lover Don Jose who sacrifices his devoted lady, Micaela, to pursue his manly passions for Carmen. Jose, angry by her sexual style and blinded by his own rage, kills Carmen, thus bringing upon himself his own devastation resulting in death. The opera is prune in Spain and the story line is more mazy than the original novel b y Prosper Merimee.The character of Carmen was too offensive for family theatre. Although Carmen appeals to popular culture, the opera still attracts academic discourse as the spirit of Spain is personified in the character of Carmen. It is clear that in order for Carmen to be represented as a whore, she had to be black. That suitable the beliefs of that time being, that the color of her skin will make her bad and evil. Moreover the color of her skin makes her also more exotic than any European and this will make her more desirable to the male audition and maybe more hated by women.In 1999 Mats Ek revised the Spanish classic Carmen to auditions all over the world. This version of Carmen is currently in the repertoire of the Royal Ballet, Cullberg Ballet, Lyon opera house Ballet, National Theatre, Ballet of Prague and the Polish National Opera Ballet. Ek in his pieces in general manages to show each characters psychological aspect in depth. In Carmen, one can see that he presents Ca rmen as this cleaning lady who is complicated and has a complex behavior. That is what he usually does in his pieces, he presents all the women as very complicated and sexual creatures.In his choreography Ek is trying to keep the original features of the opera but in order to attract more raw audiences he makes some changes so that the audience, in that time being, will be able to relate with the characters (Fifty Contemporary Choreographers, Pages 144-145). For example, the sexual behavior of Carmen in the piece is very important for the story line. However in the original piece it was not that clear. In Mats Ek version though, the sexuality is clearer and more understanding for the audience. Generally Eks version explores the literal human behavior as it is in real life.He pushes the male-female role reversal between the sexually unembellished gypsy girl and the soldier Don Jose beyond safe boundaries, substituting a cigar for the familiar go between Carmens teeth, turning her into one of the boys( Cigar Crossed Lovers, David Bogoslaw, 1999). That cigar shows that she has a masculine soul in a womans body. (Carmen, 2010) Carmen is a symbol of license and anarchy and can have as much freedom as she wants. In contrast, Jose is a traditional feminine role, a weak character that wants peace and a marriage, but cannot control his passions for Carmen in spite that he is going to marry Micaela.Eks Carmen begins and ends with a scene of a man, Jose, facing a firing squad and recalling in the last moments before death his tempestuous inter-group communication with the gypsy girl who refused to be tamed. The dance then retells the story of the progressing love affair between Carmen and Jose. Eks choreographing style in this performance is a combination of both, ballet and modern dance. As they first dance together, Carmen and Jose, is like she is slowly explaining to him, throughout the dance, how she is and how she likes to live her life.He also tries to show h er that he is a military man with a lot of discipline. At the beginning of the piece their movements are more aggressive, but as soon as they fell in love their movements become more soft and gentle. This change of the movement shows how they started to feel booming with each other as time passed (Janet Adshead, 1988, Dance Analysis Theory and practice, Pages 72-75). Carmens movement style initially is aggressive and masculine while it is becoming more beautiful as the story evolves.However, the fact that Jose is carrying the rose and Carmen the cigar, this shows that she is still the man in their relationship (As Willful As Ever And Puffing On a Cigar Anna Kisselgoff, The New York Times. 1999). Another example of how the movement shows the emotional world and the relationship between the characters is when on that point is a trio between Carmen, Jose and Escamillo, who is the reason why Carmen does not love Jose anymore. He is the new love of her heart and that makes Jose angry. In the trio the two mens jealousy is extremely obvious throughout the dancing movement.There is imitation and repetition between each ones movement and the fact that they keep a reliable distance between one another, shows the jealousy between them. At the end of the trio, when Carmen is going to strike Joses face, it becomes clear that she does not love him anymore. More over in that respect is Michaelas character which is also made clear through her movements. At the beginning she is dancing in a shy way but after she gets really angry with Jose and Carmen, thus her way of movement changes. She begins to be more aggressive and propellant in terms of movement vocabulary and that is a reflection of her emotional world.The music in Eks choreography, as mentioned above, is faithful to the original one by French composerGeorges Bizet. The only difference is that is being used for disparate purposes in the story. In the original opera the music is a guide for the progress of the plo t. In Mats Ek piece however, the music is not really needed to explain the plot or the relationship between the characters. It is there to create a mood in the piece. One thing that is really different from the original opera, in terms of sounds, is that in Mats Ek piece the dancers are sometimes talking and shouting. This adds a dynamic touch to the in all piece.Shouting is also more realistic than just singing opera. Carmen is wearing the same color of costume in both versions and almost in every version that has been created in the world. Red is the color of passion and sexuality. Thus, when the audience first sees Carmen, immediately understands her character and that she is a temptress. Micaela, in contrast to Carmen, wears blue, a color that symbolizes her innocence and that she is fragile. The track ladies costumes in Eks piece show their character and their Spanish ethnicity in contradiction to the original opera costumes that are showing the class and there social status. Ek uses very colorful, shiny and ruffled dresses that are a reverse to the 80s, in order to show that all women have sexuality. The costumes of the men are very simple and dark, just to show their discipline, as they are military men. The designs and sets in Eks Carmen are cartoonish and with playful colors. In terms of light, he tries to keep it dark. There is a metallic backdrop and panels which are suggestive of Spanish fans, as well as a large exercise ball downstage.In Mats Ek version of Carmen, there is a deeper reflection of all the characters emotional world. Carmen is clearly a symbol of Freedom and anarchy with an even more complex character than the one of the classic story. That is what Mats Ek does anyway. Except from changing the classics into more modern and humorous editions, the thing that makes him special is how he deals with the inner world of each character. He manages to present each character, throughout the dance, in a very intense way so that the audience c an understand for sure the characters personality.However he keeps the original story as it is, and he aims to show the same meaning as the original piece while at the same time he tries to explore a bit more the relationship between the characters. all in all of the above lead to Eks success when revising the classic stories. He remains faithful to the original story but however he does it not only with a more modern vocabulary but also with a more modern approach to suit the present. Much like Bizets opera of the same name, Mr. Eks version proves that a grim tale of love and death can be honest entertaining (As Willful As Ever And Puffing On a Cigar Anna Kisselgoff, The New York Times. 999). It seems that Carmen will watch to appeal the audiences for years to come. Mats Ek Carmen will also continue to be popular to the audience because of the emotional and dramatic state of Mr. Eks pieces. He is a choreographer that distant himself from anybody else in the dance field. He is ve ry original and fortunate with his choreographies and it is no wonder that he is so famous and he has achieved so much. He is an extremely talented choreographer with a lot of theatrical ideas and that is what makes him so special throughout all these years BibliographyAdshead, J. 1988. Dance digest theory and practice. London Dance books Bremser M. and Sanders L. Fifty Contemporary Choreographers. Second Edition. 2011. Roudledge Au S. Ballet and Modern dance. 1998. Thames and Hudson world of Art. Articles As Willful As Ever And Puffing On a Cigar Anna Kisselgoff, The New York Times. 1999 Websites Linda. 2010. Carmen. http//www. theballetbag. com Peter Grahame Woolf. 1996. Mats Ek Carmen. http//www. musicweb-international. com Claudia La Rocco. Keeping dance alive A Mats Ek Portrait. http//www. classicaltv. com

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Wizard of Oz

sorcerer of Oz Interpretation The terrific lead of Oz is a news report about a girl named Dorothy who experiences a cyclone that takes her to a magical disembark of good and bad. When she is in this land she encounters a Scarecrow, Tin Man, and a Lion. These 3 characters are with her throughout the story and they go through contrastive tough situations together. In the end they make their way to the Oz who grants their wishes and Dorothy goes back home. People say that this story is found off of populism, money reforms, and a political movement led by William Jennings Bryan.The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is non intentionally written to be linked to the way the rescue was because it is a childrens deem, it is a make up story, and Baum, the author of the book, never stated that it was. In the article The Story Behind The Wonderful Wizard of Oz it explains how L. Frank Baum and William Jennings Bryans concern was the nature of the money supply then prevalent in the unify States, and in the Mid-Western States in particular. Baum was featured in a movie called The Dreamer of Oz that showed how each character was apprehension of and how he had put the story together.For example, Dorothy was the name of a sweet little niece that he had which is how Dorothy from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz came about. Each character from the book was demoed as someone that he had flow across in his life at some point in time. In The Dreamer of Oz it shows how Baum enjoyed telling stories to his children and to the other kids that could come along. His wife would always bring it up to him that he needs to put it into the form of a book. Baum macrocosm the stubborn guy he was never really considered it.Sooner or later he finally complete that it all made sense and it all pieced together to become a story with no epithet. Baum sit down down with his wife and mother in law and asked them for their opinion on what he should name the story. This is how the title of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz came about. Therefore Baum had written the book from experiences and people from his past not because of the way the economy was ran in the 1900s. Last but not least Baum never stated that his story was written to represent populism.In the article The Story Behind The Wonderful Wizard of Oz it explains how each character in the childrens book is delineate by a problem that was occurring. For example, the Scarecrow is represented as the farmers and the Tin Man is represented as industrial workers. In the article it states that Baum and Bryan wanted money to be based on silver, not gold, as silver was readily available in the Mid-West, where it was mined. Such a money supply could not be manipulated by the banks. Then from there it goes into explaining each part of the story and they link together. Just because Baum and Bryan had these views on the economy does not necessarily mean that he wrote this story secretly about it. In conclusion, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is no t intentionally written to be linked to the way the economy was because it was written as a childrens book, it is a generally made up story that Baum had based off of his lifestyle, and he never stated that it was intentionally written about the ways of being in the 1900s.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Optimization of portfolio risk Essay

This paper is a critique one the article entitled Post-Modern Portfolio Theory by Swisher and Kasten (2005). The cloth for this critique is to determine whether there ground to agree or disagree on the claims of the authors as against the proof they presented. Swisher and Kasten asserted about the unreliability of Modern portfolio surmise (MPT) and its mean-variance optimization (MVO) model for asset apportionment in the financial services industry particularly on building portfolios.They instead suggested the social function of post-modern portfolio theory (PMPT) which presents a new method of asset location that optimizes a portfolio based on collapse versus down slope risk (down side optimization, or DRO) instead of MVO. What makes PMPT different from PMT as explained by the authors is its recognition that standard deflexion as a poor proxy in relation to humans experience on risk. They are therefore joust on the basis of behavioral finance which appears to be not evident under PMT in admittance to mathematical implication of the model.They explained that risk is an emotional condition which may be fear of a grownup outcome such as fear of loss, fear of under effect, or fear of failing to achieve a financial goal. (Swisher and Kasten, 2005). They simply cannot equate risks with variability as they argue that risk is more complex than frank variance although they admitted that it (risk) may be modeled and described mathematically. The authors explained that downside risk (DR) is risk definition taken from three sub-measures which include downside frequency, mean downside deviation, and downside magnitude.They added that each sub-measure must be defined with reference to an investor-specific minimal acceptable return (MAR) (Swisher and Kasten, 2005) . In translating their mathematical analysis, Swisher and Kasten (2005) stated that people like to make money, not lose and the chance of fashioning above-average amounts to money frequently is given a heavier weight as against a tiny chance of achiever in lottery.In other words, the investors would go where there are more chances so that it will be accepted as part of the chance when an investment may turn out to perform poorly but they would hope that it will not to perform very poorly or as often. Swisher and Kasten, (2005) admit the elegance of the mathematical mode for describing the amend investment although incidentally they found the model called modern portfolio theory (MPT) wrong.They acknowledged that the defect is the provision of inefficient portfolios which goes without saying the it is contradicting what it is supposed to accomplish, that is efficient asset allocation or building of portfolio. The aforementioned(prenominal) authors took courage in declaring that the primary reason why MPT produces inefficient portfolios is the erroneous present of equating standard deviation with risk. They explained that risk is something else, and there is a need to have a founder mechanical framework to describe it. Their paper therefore suggested a bring out framework for building of better portfolios through downside risk optimization (DRO).They of course defined DRO as optimization of portfolio risk versus return victimisation downside risk as the definition of risk instead of standard deviation. (Swisher and Kasten, 2005). To be more convincing in their proposed model for through the use of DRO under PMPT, Swisher and Kasten (2005) asserted that DRO is superior to MVO under MPT as an asset allocation tool using the following agate lines in support The first one is the possibility that standard deviation can lead to ridiculous results when used as a measure of risks while downside risk (DR) does the same more closely in capturing the human conception of risk as earlier defined.The second argument is the reality that financial asset returns do not behave as what a normal statistical distribution tries to paint and assume, thus even if for the sake of argument volatility is taken as a perfect representation of risk, the result will still not work. The third one, which strengthened more their position, is the better action of DRO over MVO when they demonstrated head to head comparison of portfolios (Swisher and Kasten, 2005). More importantly the result of the comparison the performance of the two produced conflicting results hence one could all be correct.This was in fact the authors basis in declaring that MPT produces inefficient portfolios. It can be concluded that there is basis to the claim of the authors that PMPT works better than MPT in building portfolios. They were able to demonstrate with evidence about their assertion by using DRO as against MVO in their comparison. There is basis to agree with the authors claim that PMPT points the way to an improved science of investing that incorporates not only DRO but also behavioral finance as against MPT.Given this reason and a number of failures caused by MPT in the past there is basis to give due credit to the proposal of the author for PMPT which justifies its use by investors and analysts as a better alternative in asset allocation. Reference Swisher and Kasten (2005) Post-Modern Portfolio Theory, Journal of financial Planning, www document URL http//www. fpanet. org/journal/articles/2005_Issues/jfp0905-art7. cfm, Accessed January 22,2008.