Friday, March 29, 2019
Travel and Tourism Essay
Travel and holidaymakerry EssayIntroduction to Travel and touring carrytourism is act for leisure, recreational and business purpose. Tourists can be defined as people who survive to and stay in places outside their usual purlieu for much than twenty-four hours and non more than(prenominal) than one consecutive course of instruction for leisure, business and other purposes by the World touristry Organization. touristry is a known affair in human life. It has been an exertion of vast dimensions and at last supports scotch and genial growth. Tourism worldwide has experienced phenomenal growth. With more than 600 million people travelling annu ally, touristry is the worlds whackingst industry, with revenues of about half a trillion dollars a year, and averaging five percent annual growth.India, being a vast and various(a) ground has al paths both(prenominal)thing to lead, and its glorious traditions and rich cultural heritage be linked with the maturement of tourism. Its magnificent monuments attract large numbers of visitors from all over the world. Tourism is the largest service industry in India, with a contribution of 5.68% of the national GDP and 8.78% of the total calling in India. India witnesses more than 13.72 million annual foreign tourist arrivals and 650 million interior(prenominal) tourist visits. The tourism industry in India generated about US$ ampere-second billion in 2008 and is expected to increase to US$ 275.5 billion 2018 at a 9.4% annual growth rate.Booming IT industry and outsourcing industry has guide to outgrowth number of business trips made by foreigners to India, who oft dates enlarge a weekend break or longer holiday to their trip. hostile tourist spends more in India than almost any other province worldwide. Tourist arrivals be projected to increase by over 22% per year through till 2010. Tourism minister has overly contend an important role in the ontogenesis of the industry, initiating advertisi ng campaigns such as the Incredible India campaign, which promoted Indias culture and tourist attractions in a fair and memorable way. This campaign helped create a colourful image of India in the minds of tourists all over the world and directly led to an increase in the take among tourists.The tourism industry has helped growth in other sectors as diverse as horticulture, handicraft, agriculture, construction and even poultry.Both directly and indirectly, increased tourism in India has created jobs in a variety of related sectors. Almost 20 million people argon now working in the Indias tourism industry.Growth Of Hospitality Industry In IndiaThe hotel industry in India is sack through an filling phase. One of the study reasons for the increase in take up for hotel fashions in the country is the boom in the overall scotch system and high growth in sectors standardised information technology, telecom, retail and legitimate e stir. Rising stock food market and new busin ess opportunities are besides attracting hordes of foreign investors and transnational corporate travellers to look for business opportunities in the country.The hotel industry in India is going through an interesting phase. The industry has a ability of 110,000 rooms. According to the tourism ministry, 4.4 million tourists visited India last year and at the present-day(prenominal) rate, the posit will soar to 10 million by 2010 to agree 350 million domestic travellers. The hotels of India permit a shortage of 150,000 rooms fuelling hotel room rates across India. With tremendous pull of prospect, India has become a edgeinalinal for hotel chains looking for growth.Due to such a huge presumable available in this fragment, several global hotel chains like the Hilton, Accor, Marriott International, Berggruen Hotels, Cabana Hotels, chancellor Travel Inn (PTI), InterContinental Hotels group and Hampshire among others turn in all inform major investment plans for the countr y. The Governments move to declare hotel and tourism industry as a high priority sector with a provision for degree centigrade per cent foreign direct investment (FDI) has also provided a set ahead impetus in attracting investments in to this industry.It is estimated that the hospitality sector is likely to trance US$ 11.41 billion rise in the next two years, with nigh 40 international hotel brands making their presence known in the country by 2011. Simultaneously, international hotel asset management companies are also likely to enter India. Already, US-based HVS International has firmed up plans to enter India, and industry players believe others like Ashford Hospitality Trust and IFA Hotels Resorts among others are likely to follow suit.Niche TourismThe concept of respite tourism has emerged in recent years in counter-point to what is commonly link upred as plurality tourism. In a globalising world of increase sameness, niche tourism represents diversity and ways of makin g difference. It plays on the dyslogistic connections that have accompanied the evolution of mass and package tourism and their, ofttimes cited, negative impacts in relation to environmental degradation and socio-cultural disturbance. For destination managers and planners pursuit to utilise tourism as a mechanism for economic development, the niche tourism approach appears to often greater opportunities and a tourism that is more sustainable, less damaging and more capable of delivering high spending tourists.The term niche tourism is by and large borrowed from the term niche marketing, which in spring up has appropriated the niche concept from the language of the relatively recent discipline of ecology.Tourists, as consumers have developed increase levels of expertise and experience of being tourists. Whilst this developmental pattern of tourists may non always be linear or simplistic.Figure 2 Niche Tourism ComponentsTypes of Niche TourismsNiche tourism has broadly been divided into following componentsCultural Tourism Cultural tourism is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or regions culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical playing fields, the history of those peoples, their art, architecture, religions, and other elements that helped shape their way of life. Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and their cultural facilities such as museums and theatres. It can also include tourism in agrestic areas showcasing the traditions of indigenous cultural communities (i.e. festivals, rituals), and their value and lifestyle.Environmental Tourism Environmental tourism, ecotourism, or nature tourism provides an opportunity to visit undisturbed natural areas, scenic vistas, and observe plants and wildlife. Ecotourism is responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strive to be low impact and often bantam scale as an alternative to mass touris m. Its purpose is to build up the traveller and provide funds for ecological saving, directly benefit the economic development and political empowerment of topical anaesthetic communities and foster respect for opposite cultures and for human rights. Generally, ecotourism wayes on volunteering, personal growth and environmental responsibility. Ecotourism typically involves travel to destinations where flora, fauna, and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. One of the goals of ecotourism is to offer tourists brainstorm into the impact of human beings on the environment, and to foster a greater gustation of our natural habitats. Responsible ecotourism includes programs that minimize the negative aspects of conventional tourism on the environment and enhance the cultural integrity of topical anaesthetic people. plain Tourism Any form of tourism that showcases the rustic life, art, culture and heritage at rustic locations, thereby benefiting the local anaesthetic com munity economically and affablely as well as enabling interaction between the tourists and the locals for a more enriching tourism experience can be termed as country tourism. sylvan tourism is essentially an activity which takes place in the boorish areas.The term folksy tourism was adopted by the European Community to refer to all tourism activities in unpolished areas or as an economic activity, which depends on and exploits the countryside.Figure 1 unsophisticated Tourism ApproachForms of cracker-barrel TourismAgritourism Agritourism or farm tourism refers to an organization working on farm or agricultural plant made for entertainment of tourists or visitors, thereby generating income for farm owners. This may help the farmers to interact with the visitors, thereby benefiting the visitors to enrich their knowledge regarding agritourism.Sports Tourism It involves tourists to enter or observe boorish sports. It teaches the local countrified people how to get ambit/cha nce in international game and to compete with opponents. It enables the people of different cultural background to unite with other people and exchange cultural activities between the parties and thereby they are culturally rich.Pro-Poor Tourism Pro Poor tourism is set up in developing countries as a direction to improve the local economy for local people. It enhances the linkages between tourism businesses and poor people so that poverty is reduced and poor people are able to participate more effectively in tourism development. The aims of pro-poor sites from change magnitude local booking to involving local people in the decision making process.Introduction to homespun Tourism in IndiaMajority of India is among the agrestic category with the sanctity and subtleness integral in the very essence of the village soil. This pious environment of the country-style India attracts lot of interest among the tourists in India and thus pastoral tourism is a fast emerging category.A n ational tourism policy was introduced in 2002, with rural tourism place as a focus area to generate use and promote sustainable livelihoods. The politics in its tenth five year plan has focused on the subject of rural tourism. With a rich diversity in culture, heritage, food, crafts, and tradition, India has immense potential and opportunity. It has identified certain areas across the country, which can immediately be developed as the rural destinations.The government partnered with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) for an Endogenous Tourism Project. Some 30 rural sites were selected in 20 states to develop as destinations for rural tourists. The UNDP pumped in an initial US$2.5 million. Those proposals that were selected by the government were entitled to assistance up to US$100,000.Divining Forces in unsophisticated TourismIndustry stakeholders define the rural tourism experience by what they offer as product. But they are simply responding to what they perceive as an increasing demand for experience of rural communities, and interpreting it via their own world views. This demand is determined by a range of forces that combine to create tourist interest in rural experiences. These forces have been identified by many a(prenominal) authors and can be summarised asTourist generating regions for rural tourism are highly developed and urbanised. The stresses of urban living and the remoteness from the natural environment has created a desire for escape from the monoculture of city living.Baby boomers are driven to tourism experiences that yield increased self- cognisantness in their drive for longed for perfection that compensates for lives destabilised by uncertainty and insecurity (Mackay, 1997)Demand fuelled by media, over-familiarity and congestion with traditional tourist resorts and increased interest in alternative attractions with its voracious appetite for heart and the resultant over exposure of many traditional tourist destinations.i ncrease environmental awareness and interest in the traffichip between human beings and the environment. Green issues have raised the attractiveness of rural experiences as ecologically sustainable tourism.Transport, communication, and the removal of political and economic barriers to travel have facilitated availableness of rural areas.Increase in number of free independent travellers re repairable to the increased capacity, especially in long-haul transport modes. When combined with increasing discretional incomes, greater awareness of the range experiences on offer, the accessibility and attractiveness of rural destinations has been dramatically improved.Changing work patterns have increased the popularity of shorter breaks that minimise the absence seizure from work and the effect of absences on work flow and involvement.An increased interest in heritage can be satisfied through rural tourism as rural areas are often the repositories of remnant heritage. artless areas are per ceived as healthier, offering fresher air, cleaner pissing and the opportunity for outdoor recreation. Rural areas offer fresh and speciality food. (Bartmann and Baum, 1998)Issues with Rural TourismThe lack of statistical baseIt is difficult to establish raft and value of rural tourism as a specific market sector in nations, even harder on an international scale. Many countries have different definitions of rural and will therefore collect different data. entropy on rural tourism are not easily obtainable.Rural communitiesThese tend to be non-uniform for example remove versus accessible rural areas convey very different types of settlement, employment opportunities, socio-demographic characteristics. Different community structures with diverse responses to tourism exist.Tourism development strategies may not benefit all rural areasWhere there is an inadequate supply of attractions or accommodation, tourism may not flourish. However marketing strategies must be good to attract to urists. Likewise, development of tourism provision by local people may not be feasible in a depressed rural economy. tint of Rural TourismThe aim of tourism development in rural areas is, in general terms, to provide opportunities for economic and social development. In almost areas, tourism provides the main source of income and employment, as well as providing social and economic benefits. Inevitably, negative aspects of rural tourism are evident as well. (Gannon 1994)EconomicAssists viability of existing tourism and non-tourism business.Encourages dependence on industry inclined to uncontrollable changeCreates new employmentCreates part time, seasonal employmentAttracts inward investmentIncurs development woos and public service costSocio-culturalAssists in viability of local serviceCreates feeling of invasion by touristsCreates sand of prideIncreases crimeRevitalises local culture, traditions, events and craftsReduction in local operateEnvironmentalLeads in environmental im provements in settlementsIncreases wear and tear on landscape featuresProvides income for conservation of buildings and natural environmentCreates engage for new developments which may not be in keeping with local area.Fosters awareness of conservation as worthwhile activityIncreases pollution and affects local biodiversityTable 1 Positive and negative impacts of rural tourismNiche Market A Place in Rural TourismIf the importance of the products one buys lies largely in their potential as social markers, tourism marketers must focus both on tourisms social signification and on meanings attached to spaces in which these occur. Explanations of tourism consumption cannot be derived in isolation from the social relations in which they are embedded. New users of the countryside are redefining what constitutes rurality, and there is a lead to take postmodernism and the construction of the rural much more seriously. Contemporary social construction often transcends the countrysides tangi ble characteristics and qualities of open space or fresh air by representing it as the setting for the achievement of a range of personal goals. The need for a wider sociological approach to tourism studies has been underline by Sharpley, who argues for the recognition of broader social and cultural influences that shape consumer behaviour as a whole and influence consumption patterns. In the interests of the rural environment, therefore, and of the small businesses trying to meet the needs of emerging markets, it is necessary to look beyond classical marketing theory to gain a useful concord of rural tourism consumption and to evaluate the existence of niches for marketing purposes.The increasing need for analysts to focus on consumption as an improved means of realizeing contemporary forms of rural tourism demand requires a participating framework within which the analysis can be conducted. A continuum to tone the relative importance of the countryside to the consumption of t ourism in rural areas is proposed to reason the importance of the countryside to the purpose of the trip and to tourist satisfaction. The significance of the model lies in its recognition of the primacy of neither tourism nor tourist types but the ways in which the countryside is consumed as a recreational resource.Challenges and Opportunities in Rural TourismThe major problem in rural areas is that there is not much telescope for working. Most of the People are engaged in agricultural activities, some of them in forestry and others are artisans. Villages are struggling with large families with one or two earning members in the family and high consumption expenditure. Due to less scope in villages most of them started migrating to cities.There are 638,691 villages in India as per the nosecount Report 2001 and the rural population is 741,660,293 with average population of 1,161 per village. Many of these rural communities have the potential have the potential resources, ability to attract the growing tourism industry. The scenic beauty, historical importance may appeal the urbanites, caught up in todays fast pace of lifestyle.Challenges in Rural TourismThe major challenges are the need to preserve the environment and natural resources and the need for appropriate education.Legislation ProblemsRespondents have pointed out that there can be judicial problems. Tourism is a part of entertainment industry. All hotels, motels and cottages having license pay taxes to government. Rural tourism should have a tax holiday or it should be tax free. The government should encourage rural tourism to grow. wishing Of Trained Man PowerThe ruler people require to be trained for discharging their duties, decorating the cottages and maintaining them, serving food to the visitors and to understand the taste of the costumers, either the local cuisine or different type of Indian cuisine. The success of rural tourism totally depends on the quality of service provided to the touri sts. To develop the manpower government has to take initiative to open various short planning courses for imparting knowledge and skills.Insufficient Financial SupportTo start rural tourism, sufficient fund is required to promote it in introductory phase. Rural tourism is still uncommon to many tourists. This is because the government has just started promoting rural tourism. Central and state government should encourage rural tourism by providing financial support to start the project. As it will create employment in rural areas and will help the inflow of funds from rural areas to urban areas.Lack of Local InvolvementSince rural people do not have knowledge and skills to involve hem in different activities. They may get the job of unskilled workers. The rural people need to develop the knowledge and skills to have a higher involvement in rural tourism. The basic concept behind the rural tourism is the betrothal of rural people. But in practice local people are seldom involved i n decision making, planning and implementing policies. Most of rural people do not have much knowledge of tourism, and are misled by outside investors who hope to take most of the economic benefits from rural area.Language ProblemThere are 16 recognized languages and 850 dialects in India. Although Hindi is an official language, in many parts of India people do not understand it. The rural people have to upgrade themselves to authorise with the urbanites. The villagers not only have to educate themselves but they have to understand hindi to interact with the Indian costumers and English to communicate with the foreign costumers.Opportunities in Rural TourismThe tourists look for quality environment and meaningful experience. merchandise of rural is a specialist job. For rural tourism, rural people have to surrender themselves to professional marketers who understand the complexity of their task. The business depends on the development of networks, creation of trust and loyalty and information system, all of which takes money and time to develop, which is beyond the resources of most individual.Tourists have become more educated, more aware of facilities available and more experienced, their expectation has also increased. People are elicit in exploring new places. Rural tourism in India has great future, since it not only provides natural elements of beauty but also the indigenous local traditions, customs and foods. Direct experience with local people can be a unique selling proposition to attract tourists. Every state in India has unique handicraft, traditions and foods. The rural tourism not go for mass marketing, rather different strategies should be under taken for different segment to make it successful.