Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Genetic Engineering Of People How Dna Is Located,...

Genetic Engineering of People: How DNA is Located, Extracted and Amplified Eric Ottoson Chemeketa Community College Abstract Genetic engineering is controversial topic of discussion amongst many circles today. The benefits can be laid out to its untold potential, but there are lines that are superimposed from moral standpoints and personal ethics. The idea resonating in these circles brings to light the availability to be able to selectively choose your offspring and specific features that you may want them to have. This entire idea starts at the very beginning of where life is formed. DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic finger print that is found in every living organism. The initial discovery of DNA was first†¦show more content†¦The original identification of DNA was by a Swiss chemist named Friedrich Miescher. In 1869, Miescher labeled a â€Å"nuclein† inside a human white blood cells nucleus. His term was later changed to nucleic acid which eventually leads to the term we know today at deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (Pray, 2008). B. DNA is located in the nucleus of the cell. Inside each nucleus of a cell is two meters of DNA. The genetic makeup of DNA consists of chemical building blocks of nucleotides. Nucleotides are made up of three bases: phosphate, sugar and nitrogen. The nitrogen bases found in nucleotides are: adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine. The order of these bases determines what biological instructions are contained in a strand of DNA (Genome.gov, 2014). Adenine pairs with thymine in a two hydrogen bonds while cytosine and guanine pair with three hydrogen bonds (Pray, 2008). The phosphate and sugar bases make up the backbone of the double helix design of a DNA stand. Each backbone contains covalent bonds the hold the structure together. These bonds run anti- parallel forming the sides of the double helix. DNA contains sequences that generate proteins that are called genes. These genes are strings of amino acids that contain instructions for the function of what each

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