Monday, March 4, 2019

Psychodynamic vs Behaviourist Theory

Psychology is non just philosophical surmisal and reasoning over the years it has evolved and it is now alike recognised as a science, to realise what psychology is all ab prohibited it is necessary to enjoy its origins and the theorist who brought it out of obscurity, Sigmund Freud. He developed the Psychodynamic or psychoanalytical perspective to en up to(p) better understanding of homophile conduct these concepts go forth be discussed further later in this study.After Freud opened the accession separate perspectives and approachinges have been developed, now with louver main argonas of psychology Cognitive, behavioristic, Biopsychology and humanistic approaches. For a comparison with the Psychodynamic opening, Behaviourist Theory leave al one be discussed. Psychodynamic hypothesis is referred to in psychological literature more than any other. This is the stereotypical psychology looking into your past, discovering hidden desires, rummaging through the un intend ed.It is the almost radical of the five theories, and by far the most criticised accused of being sexist, seeing the human population as ill, and considering sex and hostility as the only motivation for human actions. However, this surmisal has proven to be one of the most influential strings in the twentieth century. Sigmund Freud desired that human beings argon driven from throw by twain innate instincts Eros the life instinct the self-preserving and erotic instinct and death wish the death instinct the self destructive, aggression and cruelty instinct.These argon controlled by a free floating sexual energy, the libido and is seen to be the single most important motivating force in adult life, driven from birth to enhance bodily frolic. T present is a lot more to the caput than meets the eye, much like an iceberg only the very tip is showing. He is the one who came up with the concept of ones unconscious the part of the mind where desires and memories be stored, u nrecognised, only hinted at through dreams or slips of the tongue or the Freudian slip as it is more widely know.Rallying between the conscious and unconscious be the id, ego, and superego separate and conflicting forces, requiring a balance for rational health and normal conduct. The id is a soulfulnesss animal force, their need to satisfy underlying psychological needs. The superego is the ideal force, the civilised, competent figure the person strives to be. The ego sort of regulates the two, retentivity the id satisfied while staying within the guidelines of the superego. The strength of each individual force is a factor in personality if a persons superego is too strong, they are seen as rigid and guilty.If a persons id is too strong, they are seen as broken-d declare and antisocial (Boeree, 2000). The psychodynamic theory also established the idea that what happens in a persons kidhood is one of the most important factors in personality development, specially trauma tic experiences. The theory states that children who go through such things repress their memories, and this is the puzzle of adulthood mental disease. In order to further understand how personalities are shaped during childhood, Freud thought up the psychosexual comprises.This shows the development of the id and the establishment of pleasure-sensitive areas known as erogenous zones. This also brings about the idea of fixations. Such things are developed in the Oral st progress of a childs development from birth to eighteen months where the mouth is the source of food and pleasure an example of this is seen in a nursing infant and if deprived of nourishment will fixate their pleasure seeking energies on this stage, the need to always stimulate the mouth through smoking, biting and chewing.The next is the Anal stage between eighteen and thirty-six months focus on bladder and bowl elimination and is seen as a source of pleasure when the child is able to control them, this is why toilet training usually happens somewhat this age and if not mastered an adult would be seen to be anal expulsive or anal retentive. Phallic stage between age three and five years where sexual energy is pore on the genitals. Oedipus and Electra complex in which the child unconsciously wishes to posses the call down of the opposite sex and rid themselves of the parent of the same sex.The result of this desire in boys would experience castration fear which would drive them to identify with their fathers. If there is no male figure in this stage of a childs development it is thought that the child will have problems with authority figures later in life as he has never had the chance to conclude this stage. Freuds explanation for the female person development claiming that they would experience penis envy (a realisation they do not have a penis) they would eventually overcome by achieving motherhood and having their own baby.Latency stage from six years through puberty here the chil d will develop their confidence and mastery of the world around them. He believed that during this stage their experiences and excitations of previous stages are repressed and children develop childish amnesia being unable to remember much of their earlier years. The genital stage from twelve years upwards to adulthood is the culmination of the psychosexual development and the fixing of sexual energy in the genitals.This eventually directs humans towards sexual inter unravel and the beginnings of the next cycle of life (Breger, 2009). John Watson a theorist who rejected the idea of introspection and every part of the psychodynamic theory, suggested the Behaviourist view is an objective, experimental branch of natural science who are enkindle in prediction and control of behaviour, most of the early research was carried out on animals before moving onto humans.This is an approach that believes volume are innate(p) Tabula rasa literally meaning blank slate, that all human behaviour is infinitely plastic and therefore is ultimately explainable in price of the experiences that an beingness goes through rather than any genetic predisposition of characteristics that the organism possesses. The relationship between the environment and the organism is seen as a at once line, in that the organisms act on their environment, which in turn provides compensates and punishments to determine the rising probability of a response occurring.Behaviours are acquired or learned in one of two main ways, these are classical conditioning and operative conditioning. Examples of classical conditioning applied to real life are things like, smack aversion, learned emotions, advertising and development of phobias. Use of operant conditioning is referred to as behaviour modification such as in a schoolroom or therapy settings (Wyman, 2005). Watson suggests that children have three basic emotions, fear, rage and love and essay to prove that these emotions could be artificially co nditioned.The experiment of Little Albert is his most illustrious and controversial experiment, Watson and a graduate assistant named Rosalie Rayner conditioned a teeny-weeny child to fear a white rat. They accomplished this by repeatedly pairing the white rat with a loud, frightening clanging noise. They were also able to demonstrate that this fear could be generalized to other white, hairy objects. The ethics of the experiment are often criticized today, especially because the childs fear was never deconditioned. Another example of classical conditionning is Ian Pavlov Dogs, in this experiment he far-famed that dogs would salivate before the delivery of food.In a series of long-familiar experiments, he presented a variety of stimuli before the presentation of food, eventually determination that, after repeated association, a dog would salivate (response) to the presence of a stimulant drug (noise) other than food (Bitterman, 2006). The most influential of all behaviourists i s B F mule skinner he is famous for his research on operant conditioning and negative reinforcement. He developed a device called the cumulative recorder which showed rates of responding as a sloped line. Using this device, he found that behaviour did not depend on the preceding stimulus as Watson and Pavlov maintained.Instead, Skinner found that behaviours were dependent upon what happens after the response, therefore, using unequivocal and negative reinforcement responses can be conditioned to a stimulus, those that are rewarded will increase and those that are not will decrease (Rubin, 2003). not unlike other perspectives Behaviourism has gone through many transformations in the years since is conception by John Watson, one of the recent extensions in this approach has been the development of Social Learning theory. This theory is most applicable to criminology.Bandura suggests that we learn through observation, imitation and modelling of a earthshaking other, people learn th rough the outcome of those behaviours and later a person will form an idea which serves as a guide for action. A significant other could be someone one aspires to become, not necessarily family, it could be someone famous for instance. If a person sees another being rewarded or punished for a certain behaviour they may or may not copy that behaviour, what is seen as a punishment or reward for one person may not be for another.However, if it is a person they aspire to be children in particular tend to emulate this behaviour either good or bad. Part of this study was the Bobo doll experiment, he demonstrated that children learn and imitate behaviours they have sight in other people. The children observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. When the children were later allowed to toy in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had previously observed (Green, 2003).Psychology has changed its face over the many years since Freud first intr oduced the psychodynamic theory putting forward a different way of trying to understand why people behave the way they do, moving onto the Behaviourist approach which completely refutes Freuds theory by refusing to accept that people are born with natural innate instincts and that consciousness is the subject matter of psychology, who believe that psychology is about behaviour and activities and that the consciousness is not definable.They leave a huge gaping whole in their theory relating to perception, sensations, memories and imagination. Whereas Freud simply focused on his masculinity and the inferiority of the female population, although he can be forgiven for this as his theory came about in the Victorian era and this theory was a major breakthrough in history and is still one of the biggest thinkers and without whom psychologists and the like would not know as much about ourselves as people do. ReferencesBreger, L. (2009). From Instinct to Identity The Development of Personal ity. 1st ed. New island of Jersey Transaction Publishers. 1-18. Grieve, K. (2006). A students A-Z of Psychology. 1st ed. California Juta Academic. Hayes, N. (1993). A first course in Psychology. 12th ed. Cheltenham Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd. Bitterman, M. (2006). Classical Conditioning since Pavlov. Review of public Psychology. 10 (4), 365-375. Wyman, R. (2005). Experimental anaylasis of nature-nurture interactions. JEZ. 03A (6), 415-421. Boeree, G. (2000). Freud and Psychoanalysis. Available http//webspace. ship. edu/cgboer/psychoanalysis. htmlJohann_Reil. Last accessed 10 November 2010 Geen, C. (2003). infection of aggression through immitation of aggressive models. Available http//psychclassics. asu. edu/Bandura/bobo. htm. Last accessed 10 Nov 2010. Rubin, J. (2003). From Pavlov to Skinner Box. Available http//www. juliantrubin. com/bigten/skinnerbox. html. Last accessed 10 November 2010

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