Sunday, March 10, 2019
Adderall Literature Review Essay
According to DSM-IV (2005), Attention shortage Hyperactivity Disorder ( attention deficit disorder) is defined as persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequently displayed and is more severe than is typically observed in individuals at comparable level of development. A recent cultivation suggests that 9% of U.S. school-aged children (3-17) atomic number 18 diagnosed with ADHD (US Centers for Disease Control and Pr level offtion, 2010). At first, there was a misconception in society that ADHD all affected children and that eventually they would outgrow it. However, recent data suggests that 4.4% of the U.S. adult universe have ADHD. Studies overly prefigure that 30%-70% of children with ADHD continue to have symptoms as adults. (Desantis, 2008, p. 31)See more Experiment on polytropic process EssayIn terms of treating ADHD, Adderall is the more or less commonly prescribed medicine for children and adults. According to Desantis (as ci ted in Okie, 2006), The number of American adults who are prescribed medication to treat the illness has increased by 90% from 2002 to 2005, with adults receiving one-third of all prescription medicine drugs (p. 32). shire Pharmaceuticals introduced Adderall in 1996. In 2001, Shire introduced an extended release version cognize as Adderall XR. Adderall is a flux salt amphetamine.It works to increase concentration and focus by impact the production of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain (Schiffner, 2010). For individuals with ADHD, Adderall produces enough dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain to bring them to a normal severalize of functioning and focus. For individuals without ADHD, Adderall tends to over-stimulate the brain, which results in an even higher level of functioning and focus. Adderall, a wide with cocaine and otherwise joins, is classified as a Schedule II substance beca drop of its potential for ab affair and dependency some(prenominal) fleshlyly an d psychologically. wasting disease of Adderall by College StudentsThe main subject being explored throughout this paper is the expenditure of Adderall among college students. There have been numerous studies that have explored the overall usage of Adderall, scarce only a few have focused specifically on its consumption by college students. Studies have in any case been done on the immoral usage of other remarks among college students, which highlight relative statistics. Nichols (2004) indicated,the United States Department of wellness and Human Services found in an annual survey of dose use that 1.8 million Americans between the ages of 18 and 25, or 6 part of those surveyed, admitted having taken Ritalin an older in swan used to treat attention-deficit disorder without a prescription (p. A41). This cogitation indicates that there is a growing state of college students who consume non-prescribed stimulants.McCabe et al (2005), conducted a hire in which 10,904 students were surveyed at 119 contrasting 4-year colleges in the United States. From that study McCabe et al (2005) found that 6.9% of the students surveyed used an ill-gotten prescription stimulant in their life. 4.1% of which used an sinful prescription stimulant in the past year. Also for the study, McCabe et al (2005) found that non-medical prescription stimulant users were more likely to report use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine, and other risky behaviors (p. 96).Loe et al (2008) conducted a study on Adderall and Ritalin amongst the college population and results showed that students may remediate to medical means to manage their time and to perform well internal and outside of the classroom (p.8). Although the primary use of the drug is for academic purposes, students also turn to it for recreational purposes. Statistically, Loe et al (2008) account, 75% of the students who took these meds indicated doing so for academic purposes. Students also list taking t hem for fun (68%), to stay awake (56%), and to party (50%) as other reasons (p.8).Adderall may also sustain childly adults improve their drive ability. It has been account that individuals with ADHD are more likely to be at fault in driving accidents (Burgbacher and Brewer, 2006, p. 7) (as cited in Kay, 2005). This data indicates that students are determination alternative reasons for using stimulants and non just for academic purposes. Desantis et al (2008) surveyed 1,811 students at a oversized public institution in the southeast. Of the students surveyed, only 4% reported having a prescription to ADHD while 34% reported having used ADHD medication penally (p. 32).Desantis et al (2008) also indicated that only 2% of the students believed Schedule II amphetamines posed a health risk. 81% of the students believed that ADHD medications were not dangerous at all or reasonably dangerous (Desantis et al 2008, p. 33) More recently, Schwarz (2013), in an article for the overbold York Times, indicated (as cited in I.M.S. wellness, 2011) that nearly 14 million monthly prescriptions for the condition were written for Americans ages 20-39, both and half times the 5.6 million just 4 years before. (p. 18)each of these studies reported similar statistics and similar trends growing amongst the college population. Each study reported a high rate of students consuming non-medical ADHD medications. The more dreadful statistic revealed by these studies is that non-medical prescription stimulant users were more likely to abuse other drugs and also believed that ADHD medications were not dangerous at all. This indicates that Adderall and other ADHD medications are becoming a gateway drug. It is also indicates that students may be justifying their usage of non-medical consumption of ADHD medication.Attainment of AdderallStudies show that Adderall is used actually often which indicates that it is not difficult for a student to attain. Evidently, those without prescript ions find it kind of clean to obtain Adderall. On college campuses, there are usually peers exchange or willing to give away Adderall, which is a federal crime. Stolz (2012) put much of the blame on universities by stating that,Universities are a large part of the problem. Student can simply go to the health clinic on campus and obtain a prescription for Adderall or an ADHD diagnosis. The process is easy for most, and many students are misdiagnosed in that manner. University clinics eliminate the need for these students to find and engender appointments with a psychiatrist, which may take months and entails more stringent testing front to diagnosis. (p. 586)Studies also show that, along with universities, physicians often prescribe ADHD prescriptions without execute exact assessments that physicians are trained to perform (Nichols, 2004). Furthermore, money is also areason for a student to seek an Adderall prescription. Based on the previous statistics mentioned, it is widely known that there is a high demand for Adderall on a college campus, which makes it a profitable investment. Not only does the individual who obtains the prescription benefit from the sweetener of their own academic performance, but also the potential to earn income by selling the pills (Stolz, 2012, p. 586).Loe et al (2008) reported that Of the 68 students who claimed to have taken prescription stimulants without a prescription, a large majority, 87%, received the drugs from friends and family and 26% purchased the drug. (p. 9). This statistic progress verifies the simplicity in obtaining prescription stimulants.Health Concerns in Correlation with Adderall exerciseAlong with the upside of the drug, as with any other drug, there is a downside that negatively affects individuals physically and psychologically. Negative side personal effects of Adderall consumption embarrass difficulty sleeping, loss of appetite, seizures, uncontrolled shaking and body movements, and hallucinations (Schiffner, 2010). The Medical buy the farm for Adderall (which is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug administrations) lists common side effects as,Headache, decreased appetite, stomach ache, nervousness, trouble sleeping, mood swings, weight loss, dizziness, dry mouth, and turbulent heart beat (Medication Guide, 2011, p. 17) More drastic side effects may result from long periods of Adderall consumption, especially for individuals who do not have ADHD. Ultimately, this long term consumption can result in severe physical and psychological dependence. In a recent article in the newfound York Times, Schwarz (2013) (as cited from The daybook of Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2006) wrote,about 10 percent of adolescents and young adults who misused ADHD stimulants became addicted to them. Even proper, doctor supervised use of the medications can trigger psychotic behavior or suicidal thoughts in about 1 in 400 patients, according to a 2006 study in the American Journal of Psychiatry (p. 18).In March 2005, Health Canada actually suspended the sale of Adderall XR based on 20 transnational reports of sudden death in patients (Kratochvil, 2005). Evidently, the long-term use of Adderall can find major health issues including, severe dependence, psychotic behaviors, possible suicidal ideations, and even sudden death.Justifications for Illegal use of Adderall and otherwise Attention-deficit MedicationsIn society, individuals with drug and substance abuse issues often try to justify their abuse. The main goal of Desantis (2008) study was to see how college students conceive the drug and justify its use (p.35).The first vindication was comparing ADHD stimulants to party drugs. They asserted that it was morally justifiable to use ADHD stimulants because it was to promote a positive outcome (Desantis, 2008 p. 36). Another self-confidence was that ADHD stimulants were good, legal drugs because they come from medical establishments rather than bad, illegal street drugs (D esantis, 2008, p. 36). Other participants believed that theres no high because it does not alter their mind and pose the same side effects in comparison to other illegal street drugs (Desantis, 2008 pp. 36-37).Other justifications indicated in Desantis (2008) study were that students use ADHD stimulants in moderation and therefore it is not harmful. Other students maintained that they use stimulants to self-medicate because they believe they have ADHD themselves and have not been diagnosed. The final rationalization is that ADHD stimulants are harmless, benign, and a kindlyly congenial anti-fatigue aid (Desantis, 2008, pp. 38-41).All in all, the previous research supplies recent soft and quantitative data that implies that Adderall and other ADHD stimulant consumption among the college population is a recurring and growing trend. Research also maintained that universities and physicians are also responsible for the drugs circulation. As a result of this research, it is evident th at college-aged individuals are un sensitive of the major physical and psychological risks that can result from the illegal consumption of Adderall and also believe that their consumption is justifiable within society.For this study, a survey will be unnamedly distributed among college campuses in the area containing both quantitative and qualitative questions about their experience and/or knowledge of Adderall. The experiment population will be college students in the area between the ages of 18-25.The test population will be selected anonymously and will remain anonymous because the study touches upon illegal activity. I will gain access to my subjects via social media networks (facebook, twitter, etc.). From the survey, I expect to obtain pertinent information that will help understand why college students consume non-prescribed Adderall, how they gain access to Adderall, and if they are aware of the risks that come along with Adderall consumption.References Burgbacher, Katie, and Amanda Brewer Study of Adderall Use Among College Students A New and Upcoming Trend University of Kentucky. RUNNING HEAD Research Project (2006). Pp 1-19 Desantis, Alan, and Audrey Curtis Hane. Adderall is by all odds Not a Drug Justifications for the Illegal Use of ADHD Stimulants. shopping centre Use & Misuse 45 (2008) 31-46. Print. symptomatic criteria for attention deficit for hyperactivity disorder, (2005). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association. Kratochvil, Christopher. Health Canada suspends Adderall. browned University Child & Adolescent Psychopharmacology Update 7 (2005) 12. Print. Loe, M. E., DeWitt, C. , Quirindongo, C. and Sandler, R. , 2006-08-11 Pharming to Perform in the schoolroom Making Sense of the Medically-Disciplined College Student Body Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Online . 2012-06-24 fromhttp//www.all academic.com/meta/p103442_index.html McCabe, S. E., et al (2005). Non-medical use of prescription opioids amongU.S. college students prevalence and correlates from a national survey. Addictive Behaviors, 30(4), 96-106. Nichols, K. (2004). The other performance-enhancing drugs. Chronicle of higher(prenominal) Education, 51(17), A41-A42. Okie, S. (2006). ADHD in adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 35426372641. Schiffner, Jennifer. 2010. Harder, Better, Faster Stronger Regulating illegitimate Adderall Use Among Law Students and Law Schools Express Schwarz, Alan. Drowned in a decant of Prescriptions. The New York Times 3 Feb. 2013 1, 18-20. Print. Stolz, Stefanie. Adderall Abuse Regulating the Academic Steroid. Journal of Law and Education 41, No.3 (2011) 585-592. Print. Visser, SN, RH Bitsko, ML Danielson, and R Perou. Increasing Prevalence of Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children United States, 2003 and 2007. Centers for Disease Control and Pr evention 59.44 (2010) 1439-1443. Print.